Epipedobates espinosai (Funkhouser, 1956)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Dendrobatoidea > Family: Dendrobatidae > Subfamily: Colostethinae > Genus: Epipedobates > Species: Epipedobates espinosai

Phyllobates espinosai Funkhouser, 1956, Zoologica, New York, 41: 76. Holotype: CAS-SU 10577, by original designation. Type locality: "Hacienda Espinosa, elevation about 1,000 ft., 9 km. west of Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Province of Pichincha, northwestern Ecuador".

Dendrobates espinosaiMyers, Daly, and Malkin, 1978, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 161: 332.

Epipedobates espinosaiMyers, 1987, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 36: 303.

Ameerega espinosaiFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 130, by implication.

Epipedobates robnatali van der Horst and Woldhuis, 2006, DN Mag., 2006 (4): 42. Holotype: not designated. Type locality: near Rio Mindo on trail from Mindo, ca. 1800 m elevation, Pichincha, Ecuador. Invalid nomenclatural act under Art. 16.4 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) for reason of lacking explicit designation of a type. 

Epipedobates darwinwallacei Cisneros-Heredia and Yánez-Muñoz, 2011 "2010", Avanc. Cienc. Ingen., Quito, Secc. B,, 2 (3): 84. Holotype: DHMECN 5854, by original designation. Type locality: " Saragoza-Río Cinto (78° 45′ 15.7″ W, 00° 07′ 44.1″ S, 1390 m), on the Lloa-Mindo old road, provincial de Pichincha, República del Ecuador ". Synonymy by López-Hervas, Santos, Ron, Betancourth-Cundar, Cannatella, and Tarvin, 2024, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 195(108065): 1. 

English Names

Espinosa Poison Frog (Walls, 1994, Jewels of the Rainforest: 25; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 50).

Turquoise-bellied Poison-arrow Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 49).

Turquoise-bellied Poison Frog (CITES).

Darwin Wallace Poison-Frog (Epipedobates darwinwallaceiArteaga-Navarro, Bustamante, and Guayasamin, 2013, Amph. Rept. Mindo: 97). 


Western slopes of the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes in northwestern Ecuador (Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, northern Cotopaxi, Pichincha Province), at known elevations of 858 to 1719 m.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Ecuador

Endemic: Ecuador


Lötters, Jungfer, Henkel, and Schmidt, 2007, Poison Frogs: 409, provided an account and suggested that possibility that this taxon is a junior synonym of Epipedobates boulengeriArteaga-Navarro, Bustamante, and Guayasamin, 2013, Amph. Rept. Mindo: 97–98, provided an account and dot map for Ecuador for nominal Epipedobates darwinwallaceiDias, Anganoy-Criollo, Guayasamin, and Grant, 2018, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 13: 54–63, discussed larval morphology of nominal Epipedobates darwinwallacei. López-Hervas, Santos, Ron, Betancourth-Cundar, Cannatella, and Tarvin, 2024, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 195(108065): 1–24, placed Epipedobates darwinwallacei into syynonymy and noted an unnamed lineage, their Epipedobates aff. espinosai, in Esmeraldas, northern Imbabura, western Pichincha, and northern Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas provinces, Ecuador. 

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