Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Dendropsophus > Species: Dendropsophus minutus

Hyla minuta Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 680. Syntypes: ZMB 7456 (5 specimens) according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 76; Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 56, reported 6 specimens from Nova Friburgo and 2 from Rio de Janeiro; including ZMB 7456 and possibly two unlocated specimens by Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 42. Type locality: "Umgebung von Rio de Janeiro"; rendered as Neu-Freiburg [= Nova Friburgo] and vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 42.

Hyla minutaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 389.

Hyla velata Cope, 1887, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 24: 46. Syntypes: ANSP 12285–91, according to Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 353; ANSP 12285 designated lectotype by Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 76. Type locality: "at or near . . . . Chupada [= Chapada dos Guimarães], thirty miles north-east of Cuyabá, and near the headwaters of the Xingu, an important tributary of the Amazon", Mato Grosso, Brazil. Synonymy by Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 119.

Hyla bivittata Boulenger, 1888, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 1: 188. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.12.86–1 (formerly 88.2.726–731) according to Condit, 1964, J. Ohio Herpetol. Soc., 4: 88. Type locality: "Lages, Santa Catharina", Brazil. Synonymy by Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 119.

Hyla pallens Lutz, 1925, C. R. Mém. Hebd. Séances Soc. Biol. Filial., Paris, 93 (1925, vol. 2): 212. Syntypes: Not stated, by museum records MNRJ 80–81 and (according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 57) USNM 96197–99. Type locality: "les marais de Rio [de Janeiro] et dans les états voisins", Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Given as "Bomsuccesso, Rio de Janeiro", Brazil by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 57. Synonymy by Mertens, 1929, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 40: 287.

Hyla suturata Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 93. Syntypes: MNRJ 227 (4 specimens); MNRJ 227A designated lectotype by Miranda-Ribeiro, 1955, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 42: 411. Type locality: "Therezopolis [Teresópolis]—E. do Rio [de Janeiro]", Brazil. Synonymy with Hyla pallens by Myers, 1946, Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, N.S., Zool., 55: 12.

Hyla emrichi Mertens, 1927, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 38: 287. Holotype: SMF 21758, by original designation. Type locality: "Monserrat bei Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilien". Synonymy by Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 119.

Hyla minuta bivittataBarrio, 1967, Physis, Buenos Aires, 26: 521–524.

Dendropsophus minutusFaivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 92.

English Names

Lesser Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 56).

Guianan Dwarf Treefrog (Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 13, not currently recognized).


Lowlands east of Andes from Colombia, Venezuela, and Trinidad southward through Ecuador, Peru and Brazil to Bolivia, eastern Paraguay, northeastern Uruguay, and Argentina, up to 2000 m elevation. See comment. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela


For discussion see Rivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 133; Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 277–280, and Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 492–495. Bokermann, 1963, An. Acad. Brasil. Cienc., 35: 471–472, detailed larval morphology (as nominal Hyla minuta) but from Sao Paulo, Brazil, now outside of the known range and clearly corresponding to another species.  Duellman, 1978, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 65: 155–156, provided a brief account including characterization of call and tadpole. See also Donnelly and Myers, 1991, Am. Mus. Novit., 3017: 14–19, and Heyer, Rand, Cruz, Peixoto, and Nelson, 1990, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 31: 266–267. Cardoso and Haddad, 1984, Cienc. Cult., São Paulo, 36: 1393–1399, discussed geographically coherent acoustic differences among populations. Kaplan, 1994, J. Herpetol., 28: 79–87, suggested that Hyla minuta is a composite of several species. Márquez, De la Riva, and Bosch, 1993, Biotropica, 25: 426–443, described the advertisement call. Duellman, 1997, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas, 2: 17–18, commented on a population in southern Venezuela. See Olmos, Prigioni, and Achaval, 1997, Acta Zool. Platense, 1: 1–7, for Uruguay record. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 150–151, provided a photo and brief account for Guiana. Kenny, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 29: 45–47, and Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 70–72, provided accounts for the Trinidad and Tobago populations. Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 101–104, who noted geographic variation in Bolivia. Izecksohn and Carvalho-e-Silva, 2001, Anf. Municipio Rio de Janeiro: 50, provided a brief account and photo. See comments regarding geographic variation in Venezuelan population by Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 34. Señaris and Ayarzagüena, 2002, J. Herpetol., 36: 635, reported the species from Cerro Jaua, Bolívar, Venezuela, at 1600 m. Achaval and Olmos, 2003, Anf. Rept. Uruguay, ed. 2: 39, provided a brief account and photograph for the Uruguay population. In the Dendropsophus minutus group of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 92. See comments by Lynch, 2006, Caldasia, 28: 140. Hawkins, Sites, and Noonan, 2007, Zootaxa, 1540: 61–67, demonstrated on the basis of molecular data that this nominal species is composed of several cryptic species (see comments by Smith, 2008, Zootaxa, 1691: 67–68, on this paper). Fouquet, Gilles, Vences, Marty, Blanc, and Gemmell, 2007, PLoS One, 10 (e1109): 1–10, provided molecular evidence that this is a species complex. Canelas and Bertoluci, 2007, Iheringia, Zool., 97: 21–26, provided a record for the Serra do Caraça, southern end of the Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 8, briefly discussed the range in Paraguay. Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 49–50, provided a photograph and brief account (as Hyla minuta). Cruz, Feio, and Caramaschi, 2009, Anf. Ibitipoca: 90–91, provided photographs and a brief account for Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brazil. França and Venâncio, 2010, Biotemas, 23: 71–84, provided a record for the municipality of Boca do Acre, Amazonas, with a brief discussion of the range. Lynch and Suárez-Mayorga, 2011, Caldasia, 33: 235–270, illustrated the tadpole and included the species in a key to the tadpoles of Amazonian Colombia. See account for Suriname population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 124–125. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 401–402, for brief account and records for Guyana. Weiler, Núñez, Airaldi, Lavilla, Peris, and Baldo, 2013, Anf. Paraguay: 58, provided a brief account, image, and dot map for Paraguay. Oyamaguchi, Okubo, and Pollinger, 2015, Amphibia-Reptilia, 36: 83–86, reported on polymorphic microsatellite loci of potential use for population studies. Schulze, Jansen, and Köhler, 2015, Zootaxa, 4016: 27–31, characterized and pictured the larva and noted that in Bolivia two morphologically distinguishable lineages are discernible. Gehara, Crawford, Orrico, Rodriguez, Lötters, Fouquet, Barrientos, Brusquetti, De la Riva, Ernst, Gagliardi-Urrutia, Glaw, Guayasamin, Hölting, Jansen, Kok, Kwet, Lingnau, Lyra, Moravec, Pombal, Rojas-Runjaic, Schulze, Señaris, Solé, Rodrigues, Twomey, Haddad, Vences, and Köhler, 2014, PLoS One, 9(9: e103958): 1–16, found on the basis of mitochondrial genes that this species is likely a complex of species, including a distinct Dendropsophus goughi on Trinidad, and possibly including 6 populations in the Guianas, and another 7 unnamed species in the remainder of South America. The holotype was subsequently examined by Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 74, and found to be representative of Dendropsophus microcephalus, although they noted that this has no impact on the nature of Dendropsophus minutus (in which Dendropsophus goughi formerly sat) as a complex as reported on by Gehara, Crawford, Orrico, Rodriguez, Lötters, Fouquet, Barrientos, Brusquetti, De la Riva, Ernst, Gagliardi-Urrutia, Glaw, Guayasamin, Hölting, Jansen, Kok, Kwet, Lingnau, Lyra, Moravec, Pombal, Rojas-Runjaic, Schulze, Señaris, Solé, Rodrigues, Twomey, Haddad, Vences, and Köhler, 2014, PLoS One, 9(9: e103958): 1–12 . Acosta-Galvis, 2017, Biota Colomb., 18: 282–315, reported the species from the Municipality of Yopal, Casanare Department, Colombia. Moraes, Almeida, Fraga, Rojas-Zamora, Pirani, Silva, Carvalho, Gordo, and Werneck, 2017, ZooKeys, 715: 103–159, reported on specimens from the Serra da Mocidade, state of Roraima, northern Brazil. Oyamaguchi, Oliveira, and Smith, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 120: 363–370, reported on body size variation across the Amazon–Cerrado gradient. Zimmerman, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 235–246, reported on advertisement call, as Hyla minuta. Freitas, Abegg, Dias, and Moraes, 2018, Herpetol. Notes, 11: 59–72, provided a record from the Serra da Jibóia, Bahia, Brazil. Señaris, Lampo, Rojas-Runjaic, and Barrio-Amorós, 2014, Guía Ilust. Anf. Parque Nac. Canaima: 144–145, provided a photograph and a brief account for the Parque Nacional de Canaima, Venezuela. Rodriguez, Börner, Pabijan, Gehara, Haddad, and Vences, 2015, Evol. Ecol., 29: 765–785 (and supplemental data), reported on phylogeographic diversity and its causes. Neves, Yves, Pereira Silva, Alves, Vasques, Coelho, and Silva, 2019, Herpetozoa, Wien, 32: 113–123, provided habitat information and a record for western Minas Gerais, Brazil. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 74–75, for comments on range, systematics (noting this nominal species is a complex), and literature. See account by Maneyro, Langone, and Carreira, 2019, in Maneyro, Langone, and Carreira (eds.), Libro Rojo Anf. Rept. Uruguay: 47–51, for Uruguay. For identification of larvae (as Hyla minuta) in central Amazonia, Brazil, see Hero, 1990, Amazoniana, 11: 201–262. Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status in the Venezuelan Guayana. Dubeux, Silva, Nascimento, Gonçalves, and Mott, 2019, Rev. Nordestina Zool., 12: 18–52, summarized the literature on larval morphology. Rossa-Feres and Nomura, 2006 "2005", Biota Neotrop., São Paulo, 6 (2: bn00706012006): 1–24, characterized and provided a key to the larvae of northwestern São Paulo state, Brazil. See Dubeux, Nascimento, Lima, Magalhães, Silva, Gonçalves, Almeida, Correia, Garda, Mesquita, Rossa-Feres, and Mott, 2020, Biota Neotrop., 20 (2: e20180718): 1–24, for characterization and identification of larvae north of the Rio São Francisco in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Vaz-Silva, Maciel, Nomura, Morais, Guerra Batista, Santos, Andrade, Oliveira, Brandão, and Bastos, 2020, Guia Ident. Anf. Goiás e Dist. Fed. Brasil Central: 72–73, provided an account. See brief account for the Manu region, Peru, by Villacampa-Ortega, Serrano-Rojas, and Whitworth, 2017, Amph. Manu Learning Cent.: 140–141. Eterovick, Souza, and Sazima, 2020, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 1–292, provided an account, life history information, and an identification scheme for the Serra de Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Metcalf, Marsh, Torres Pacaya, Graham, and Gunnels, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 753–767, reported the species from the Santa Cruz Forest Reserve, Loreto, northeastern Peru. In the Dendropsophus minutus group of Orrico, Grant, Faivovich, Rivera-Correa, Rada, Lyra, Cassini, Valdujo, Schargel, Machado, Wheeler, Barrio-Amorós, Loebmann, Moravec, Zina, Solé, Sturaro, Peloso, Suárez, and Haddad, 2021, Cladistics, 37: 73–105. Alves-Ferreira, Paixão, and Nomura, 2021, Biota Neotrop., 21 (4: e20201178): 1–11, described and pictured larval morphology. Reported from the Environmental Protection Area of Catolé and Fernão Velho, Alagoas, Brazil, by Dubeux, Nascimento, Gonçalves, and Mott, 2021, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 61 (e20216176): 1–10, who provided a key to the frogs of that region. Laufer, Gobel, Kacevas, Lado, Cortizas, Carabio, Arrieta, Prigioni, Borteiro, and Kolenc, 2021, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 15 (2: e290): 228–237, provided new records for Uruguay and discussed conservation status. Lopes, Serra, Piorski, and Andrade, 2020, An. Acad. Brasil. Cienc., 92 (suppl. 2: e20181171): 1–14, reported on morphometric variation in tadpoles correlated with pond type. Pezzuti, Leite, Rossa-Feres, and Garcia, 2021, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 22 (Special Issue): 1–109, described and discussed larval morphology and natural history. Palmeira, Gonçalves, Dubeux, Lima, Lambertini, Valencia-Aguilar, Jenkinson, James, Toledo, and Mott, 2022, Cuad. Herpetol., 36: 65–75, reported on habitat in Natural Heritage Reserve Mata Estrela, Baía Formosa, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Manzano, Takeno, and Sawaya, 2022, Zootaxa, 5178: 453–472, reported on the advertisement call. Schiesari, Rossa-Feres, Menin, and Hödl, 2022, Zootaxa, 5223: 55–56, detailed larval and metamorph morphology and natural history. Santos, Feio, and Nomura, 2023, Biota Neotrop., 23 (3:e20231486): 1–43, characterized tadpole morphology as part of an identification key to the tadpoles of the Brazilian Cerrado. Vicente-Ferreira, Nascimento, Batista, Kardush, Reyes, and Garey, 2024, Biota Neotrop., 24(1: e20231526): 1–17, provided records from the Refúgio Biológico Bela Vista, Paraná, southern Brazil (adjacent to the Paraguay border), as well as providing identification keys to these species based on larval and adult morphology. Chaves, Sena, and Diniz, 2024, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 65(e202464017): 1–14, reported on geographic variation in call parameters. 

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