Osteocephalus taurinus Steindachner, 1862

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Osteocephalus > Species: Osteocephalus taurinus

Osteocephalus taurinus Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 30. Nomen nudum.

Osteocephalus taurinus Steindachner, 1862, Arch. Zool. Anat. Fisiol., Fasc. 1, 2: 77. Holotype: NHMW 16492 according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 150, and Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 26. Type locality: "Barra do Rio Negro, [Manáus, Amazonas,] in Brasilien".

Osteocephalus flavolineatus Steindachner, 1862, Arch. Zool. Anat. Fisiol., Fasc. 1, 2: 80. Holotype: NHMW 16495 according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 150, and Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 26. Type locality: "Cocuy [= Cucuí, Amazonas], in Brasilien". Tentative synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 363.

Trachycephalus (Osteocephalus) taurinusSteindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 64.

Trachycephalus (Osteocephalus) flavolineatus Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 64.

Hyla taurinaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 363. Rivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 110.

Hyla planicepsBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 364.

Hyla (Trachycephalus) taurinaMelin, 1941, Göteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitterh. Samh. Handl., Ser. B, 1: 38.

Hyla depressa Andersson, 1945, Ark. Zool., 37A(2): 73. Holotype: NHRM 1966, according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 150. Type locality: "Rio Pastaza, Watershed", eastern Ecuador. Synonymy by Trueb and Duellman, 1971, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 1: 31.

Osteocephalus taurinusGoin, 1961, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 36: 13; Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 64.

English Names

Manaus Slender-legged Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 61).


Amazon Basin of Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, as well as the upper Orinoco Basin of Venezuela, and the Guianas (see comment).

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela


De la Riva, Márquez, and Bosch, 1995, J. Herpetol., 29: 116, suggested on the basis of call variation that this nominal species may conceal a number of cryptic species. Duellman, 1978, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 65: 172–173, provided a brief account including characterization of call and tadpole. Zimmerman, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 235–246, and Zimmerman and Bogart, 1984, Acta Amazonica, 14: 473–520, reported on vocalization. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 40–41, provided a brief account for the Iquitos region of northeastern Peru. Duellman, 1997, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas, 2: 20, commented on identifications of a population in southeastern Venezuela. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 188–189, provided a photo and brief account for French Guiana. See comments regarding Venezuelan population by Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 38. Duellman, 2005, Cusco Amazonico: 227–230, provided an account (adult and larval morphology, description of the call, life history). Kok and Kalamandeen, 2008, Intr. Taxon. Amph. Kaieteur Natl. Park: 188-189, provided an account. Bernarde, Machado, and Turci, 2011, Biota Neotrop., 11: 117–144, reported specimens from Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre, Brazil. See account for Suriname population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 168-169. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 412–413, for brief account and records for Guyana. In the Osteocephalus taurinus species group of Jungfer, Faivovich, Padial, Castroviejo-Fisher, Lyra, Berneck, Iglesias, Kok, MacCulloch, Rodrigues, Verdade, Torres-Gastello, Chaparro, Valdujo, Reichle, Moravec, Gvoždík, Gagliardi-Urrutia, Ernst, De la Riva, Means, Lima, Señaris, Wheeler, and Haddad, 2013, Zool. Scripta, 42: 351–380, who also noted five likely species masquerading under this name. These authors also noted that nominal Osteocephalus taurinus is paraphyletic with respect to Osteocephalus oophagus due to the fact that four unnamed species from the eastern part of the Guiana Shield, eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil, western Guiana Shield, and Pasco, Peru, are masquerading under the name Osteocephalus taurinus, which is actually restricted to Amazonia of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia. Señaris, Lampo, Rojas-Runjaic, and Barrio-Amorós, 2014, Guía Ilust. Anf. Parque Nac. Canaima: 172–173, provided a photograph and a brief account for the Parque Nacional de Canaima, Venezuela. Schulze, Jansen, and Köhler, 2015, Zootaxa, 4016: 41–42, described, diagnosed, and pictured the larva. See comment under Osteocephalus oophagus. Forti, Foratto, Márquez, Pereira, and Toledo, 2018, PeerJ, 6(e4813): 1–19, characterized the advertisement call. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 78–79, for comments on range, systematics (noting that only unnamed members of this complex occur in Venezuela), and literature. Fouquet, Vidal, and Dewynter, 2019, Zoosystema, 41: 369, noted the French Guiana population as an unnamed species, part of the Osteocephalus taurinus complex. For identification of larvae (as Osteocephalus taurinus) in central Amazonia, Brazil, see Hero, 1990, Amazoniana, 11: 201–262. Metcalf, Marsh, Torres Pacaya, Graham, and Gunnels, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 753–767, reported the species from the Santa Cruz Forest Reserve, Loreto, northeastern Peru. Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status of Osteocephalus aff. taurinus in the Venezuelan Guayana. Vaz-Silva, Maciel, Nomura, Morais, Guerra Batista, Santos, Andrade, Oliveira, Brandão, and Bastos, 2020, Guia Ident. Anf. Goiás e Dist. Fed. Brasil Central: 84–85, provided an account. See brief account for the Manu region, Peru, by Villacampa-Ortega, Serrano-Rojas, and Whitworth, 2017, Amph. Manu Learning Cent.: 180–181. Schiesari, Rossa-Feres, Menin, and Hödl, 2022, Zootaxa, 5223: 63–65, detailed larval and metamorph morphology and natural history. Gagliardi-Urrutia, García Dávila, Jaramillo-Martinez, Rojas-Padilla, Rios-Alva, Aguilar-Manihuari, Pérez-Peña, Castroviejo-Fisher, Simões, Estivals, Guillen Huaman, Castro Ruiz, Angulo Chávez, Mariac, Duponchelle, and Renno, 2022, Anf. Loreto: 120–121, provided a brief account, photograph, dot map, and genetic barcode for Loreto, Peru. Crnobrna, Santa-Cruz Farfan, Gallegos, López-Rojas, Llanqui, Panduro Pisco, and Kelsen Arbaiza, 2023, Check List, 19: 444, provided a record from Ucayali Department, central-eastern Peru.

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