Smilisca phaeota (Cope, 1862)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Smilisca > Species: Smilisca phaeota

Hyla phaeota Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358. Holotype: USNM 39899 (formerly 4347) according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 57. Type locality: "Turbo, [Intendencia de Chocó, Colombia,] New Granada".

Hyla baudini dolomedes Barbour, 1923, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 129: 11. Holotype: MCZ 8539, by original designation. Type locality: "Rio Esnápe, Sambú Valley, eastern Panama". Synonymy by Dunn, 1931, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 5: 413.

Hyla carinata Andersson, 1939 "1938", Ark. Zool., 30(23): 22. Syntypes: NHRM 1874 (3 specimens), according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 42. Type locality: "San José. Tarraco", Bolivia. This locality considered erroneous by De la Riva, 1993, Herpetol. J., 3: 113–114, who discussed why the likely provenance was probably Chocoan Ecuador or Colombia, and placed this name in synonymy.

Smilisca phaeota phaeotaSmith, 1953, Herpetologica, 8: 150.

Smilisca phaeotaStarrett, 1960, Copeia, 1960: 303.

English Names

New Granada Cross-banded Treefrog (Smilisca phaeota: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 65).

Tarraco Treefrog (Hyla carinata: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 54).

Central American Smilisca (Smilisca phaeota: Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 69).


Caribbean lowlands of Central America from eastern Honduras, and Nicaragua to southeastern Costa Rica, eastern Panama, western and Magdalena Valley of Colombia, and western Ecuador.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama


Reviewed by Duellman, 1968, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 61: 1–2, and Duellman, 1970, Monogr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas: 603–607. See accounts by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 351–352, and McCranie and Wilson, 2002, Amph. Honduras: 338–341. Lips and Savage, 1996, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 109: 17–26, included this species in a key to the tadpoles found in Costa Rica. McCranie, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 39, detailed the departmental range in Honduras. See comments by Sunyer, Páiz, Dehling, and Köhler, 2009, Herpetol. Notes, 2: 189–202, regarding Nicaraguan populations. Travers, Townsend, Sunyer, Obando, Wilson, and Nickerson, 2011, Herpetol. Rev., 42: 399, noted a new locality in Nicaragua (Jinotega). Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 265–268, provided a brief summary of natural history and identification key for the species of Smilisca in Central America and provided a range map and photograph for this species.. Sunyer, Martínez-Fonseca, Salazar-Saavedra, Galindo-Uribe, and Obando, 2014, Mesoam. Herpetol., 1: 170, provided a record for the department of Boaco, Nicaragua. Palacio Baena, Muñoz Escobar, Gallo Delgado, and Rivera-Correa, 2006, Anfibios y Reptiles del Valle de Aburrá: 81–83, provided a brief account and photograph. Armijos-Ojeda, Székely, Székely, Cogǎlniceanu, Cisneros-Heredia, Ordóñez-Delgado, Escudero, and Espinosa, 2021, ZooKeys, 1063: 39, provided a dot map for western Ecuador. Gil-González, Londoño-Quiceno, Rojas-Rivera, and Gutiérrez-Cárdenas, 2022, Catal. Anf. Rept. Colombia, Medellín, 8: 69–92, provided a review, with special reference to Colombia, including discussions of morphology, advertisement call, natural history, photograph, and a range map for Colombia. Martínez-Fonseca, Holmes, Sunyer, Westeen, Grundler, Cerda, Fernández-Mena, Loza-Molina, Monagan, Nondorf, Pandelis, and Rabosky, 2024, Check List, 20: 73, provided and discussed a record from Asososca Lake–Momotombo, Department of León, western Nicaragua. 

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