Gastrophrynoides Noble, 1926

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Asterophryinae > Genus: Gastrophrynoides
2 species

Gastrophrynoides Noble, 1926, Am. Mus. Novit., 212: 22. Type species: Engystoma borneense Boulenger, 1897, by monotypy.

English Names

Borneo Narrowmouth Toads (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 89).


Southern Peninsular Malaysia, and in Bornean Malaysia in Sarawak and Sabah; presumably will be found in northwestern Kalimantan, Indonesia.


Formerly in the Old World component of Microhylinae; Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 225, did not address this taxon in their study, and they removed Gastrophrynoides from any subfamily pending resolution of its phylogenetic placement. van der Meijden, Vences, Hoegg, Boistel, Channing, and Meyer, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 44: 1017-1030, did not address this taxon. Matsui, Hamidy, Belabut, Ahmad, Panha, Sudin, Khonsue, Oh, Yong, Jiang, and Nishikawa, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 167-176, suggested on the basis of mtDNA phylogenetic analysis that Gastrophrynoides is related to Asterophryinae (their exemplar being Oreophryne monticola). Kurabayashi, Matsui, Belabut, Yong, Ahmad, Sudin, Kuramoto, Hamidy, and Sumida, 2011, BMC Evol. Biol., 11(175): 175 (1-12), formally transferred Gastrophrynoides to Asterophryinae as the most basal clade. de Sá, Streicher, Sekonyela, Forlani, Loader, Greenbaum, Richards, and Haddad, 2012, BMC Evol. Biol., 12(241) : 1-21, confirmed the position of Gastrophrynoides as the sister taxon of remaining asterophrynines.

Contained taxa (2 sp.):

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