Gracixalus carinensis (Boulenger, 1893)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Gracixalus > Species: Gracixalus carinensis

Ixalus carinensis Boulenger, 1893, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, 13: 339. Syntypes: 7 specimens, BMNH 1947.2.6.24–27 (formerly 1893.10.9.25–28, by museum records) and MSNG 29852.A according to Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 33, who designated BMNH 1947.2.6.24 (formerly 1893.10.9.25) lectotype and described it on page 75. Type locality: "Karin Hills, 2900–3500 feet" (1 specimen); "Thao" (1 specimen); and "District of the Karin Bia-po" (5 specimens), Myanmar; restricted by lectotype designation to "Karin Hills, 2900–3500 feet", Myanmar. Hallermann, Ananjeva, Orlov, and Tillack, 2002, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 99: 139–153,  and Hallermann, 2006, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 103: 139, suggested that ZMH A03138–41, might have been part of the original syntypic series.

Rhacophorus (Philautus) carinensisAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 55, 89.

Philautus carinensisSmith, 1940, Rec. Indian Mus., 42: 475; Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 458.

Philautus (Philautus) carinensisBossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 34.

Aquixalus (Aquixalus) carinensisDelorme, Dubois, Grosjean, and Ohler, 2005, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 74: 166.

Kurixalus carinensisLi, Che, Bain, Zhao, and Zhang, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 310, by implication.

Gracixalus carinensisLi, Che, Murphy, Zhao, Zhao, Rao, and Zhang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 53: 509.

Orixalus carinensis — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 256.

English Names

Burmese Bubble-nest Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 111).

Brown Carin Tree Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 145).

Karin Hills Bushfrog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 148; Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 41).

Burmese Bush Frog (Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 398).

Burmese Bushfrog (Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 54). 


Northeastern Myanmar (Kayah); northwestern Thailand (Chiang Mai); 1400–2000 m in montane forest streams.


Recorded for Thailand by Khonsue and Thirakhupt, 2001, Nat. Hist. J. Chulalongkorn Univ., 1: 77. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 148–149, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Matsui, Khonsue, Panha, and Eto, 2015, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 32: 209, doubted that the Vietnamese sample represents the same species as that in the Myanmar type series, and subsequently (Matsui, Ohler, Eto, and Nguyen, 2017, Alytes, 33: 28) named that population as Gracixalus sapaensisNiyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 398–399, provided a brief account (description, photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). Makchai, Chuaynkern, Safoowong, Chuachat, and Cota, 2020, Amph. N. Thailand: 158, provided photographs, a brief account for Thailand, and a range map. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 41, briefly discussed identification, habitat, and range in Myanmar. 

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