Polypedates otilophus (Boulenger, 1893)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Polypedates > Species: Polypedates otilophus

Rhacophorus otilophus Boulenger, 1893, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1893: 527. Holotype: BMNH, by original designation, this possibly being BMNH 1893.5.3.29 by museum records. Type locality: "Bongon, N. Borneo", Malaysia.

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) otilophusAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 137; Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 77.

Polypedates otilophusLiem, 1970, Fieldiana, Zool., 57: 98; Dring, 1982, in Anderson et al. (eds.), Gunung Mulu National Park: 293.

English Names

Bony-headed Rhacophorus (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 134).

Bongon Whipping Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 113).

File-eared Tree Frog (Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 164; Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 74).


Eastern, western and northern Borneo.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Malaysia, East (Sarawak and/or Sabah)


In the Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) leucomystax group of Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 77; see comment under Polypedates. See account by Inger, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 34: 413; and Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 326–329. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 129–130. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 197, provided an account. Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 164, provided a brief description. Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 74, provided a photograph and brief account. Riyanto, Kusrini, Lubis, and Darmawan, 2009, Russ. J. Herpetol., 16: 217–220, reported on geographic variation of morphology and did not find significant differences among the Javan, Bornean, and Sumatran populations although they did not coloration and skin-texture differences of the Bornean population from the others.  Matsui, Hamidy, and Kuraishi, 2014, Spec. Diversity, 19: 1–7, assigned the former the Sumatran and Javan populations to the new Polypedates pseudotilophus and restricted the name Polypedates otilophus to the Bornean populations. Haas, Kueh, Joseph, bin Asri, Das, Hagmann, Schwander, and Hertwig, 2018, Evol. Syst., 2: 89–114, provided a brief account of morphology and natural history for the Sabah population. Rahman, Chen, Wu, Chen, Lwin, Murphy, Li, and Che, 2020, Zootaxa, 4742: 531–541, provided a genetically confirmed record from Kanowit, Sarawak, Malaysia. Haas, Das, Hertwig, Bublies, and Schulz-Schaeffer, 2022, Guide to the Tadpoles of Borneo: 379–381, summarized the knowledge of habitat, reproduction, larval morphology and coloration. 

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.