Raorchestes chalazodes (Günther, 1876)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Raorchestes > Species: Raorchestes chalazodes

Ixalus chalazodes Günther, 1876 "1875", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1875: 574. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.6.35 (formerly 1874.4.29.267) according to Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 75. Type locality: "Travancore", South India.

Rhacophorus (Philautus) chalazodesAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 87.

Philautus chalazodesGorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 166; Inger, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 527.

Philautus (Philautus) chalazodesBossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 26.

Pseudophilautus chalazodesLi, Che, Murphy, Zhao, Zhao, Rao, and Zhang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 53: 519. Provisional change by implication.

Raorchestes chalazodesBiju, Shouche, Dubois, Dutta, and Bossuyt, 2010, Curr. Sci., Bangalore, 98: 1120, by implication.

English Names

Chalazodes Bubble-nest Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 111).

White-spotted Bush Frog (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 66).

Günther's Bush Frog (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 151; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 96).

Chalazodes Bush Frog (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 13).


Known only from the imprecise type locality "Travancore" (= southern Kerala, India), and not reliably recollected since the type. But, see comment on possibly recent material. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: India

Endemic: India


Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 26, suggested that this species may be a synonym of Philautus beddomii, which they considered to be senior of Ixalus chalazodes. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 151–152, 217, provided a brief account. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 75–76, provided relevant literature and range. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 520. Biju and Bossuyt, 2009, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 155: 374–444 [400–402], recognized the species as distinct from Raorchestes beddomii (as Philautus), provided an account, distribution map, and discussed relationships. A brief characterization, photograph, and dot map provided by Subramanian, Dinesh, and Radhakrishnan, 2013, Atlas of Endemic Amph. W. Ghats: 129. Sivaprasad, 2013, Common Amph. Kerala: 172–173, provided a brief account, photograph, and dot map for Kerala, India, which suggests that if the specimen photographed is correctly identified that the species has been recollected recently. 

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