Rhacophorus bipunctatus Ahl, 1927

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Rhacophorus > Species: Rhacophorus bipunctatus

Rhacophorus maculatus Anderson, 1871, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 40: 27. Syntypes: 5 specimens, presumably originally in ZSIC; reported as ZSIC 10291, 2753–56 by Bordoloi, Bortamuli, and Ohler, 2007, Zootaxa, 1653: 2 and specimens noted by Anderson as having been collected by Jerdon (Jerdon, 1870, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1870: 66–85); these being BMNH 1872.4.17.123–129, according to Bordoloi, Bortamuli, and Ohler, 2007, Zootaxa, 1653: 3, who designated 1872. 4.17.127  lectotype (lectophoront). Type locality: "Khasi Hills", India.

Rhacophorus bimaculatus Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 90. Replacement name for Rhacophorus maculatus Anderson, 1871, a secondary homonym of Hyla maculata Gray, 1830, when the latter is in Rhacophorus.

Rhacophorus bipunctatus Ahl, 1927, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1927: 46. Replacement name for Rhacophorus bimaculatus Boulenger, 1882, a junior secondary homonym of Leptomantis bimaculata Peters, 1867 (now = Rhacophorus bimaculata).

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) bipunctatusAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 168; Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 77.

Rhacophorus reinwardtii bipunctatusWolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 214.

Rhacophorus bimaculatusInger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 294.

Philautus cherrapunjiae Roonwal and Kripalani, 1966 "1961", Rec. Indian Mus., 59: 326. Holotype: ZSIC 20806, by original designation. Type locality: "vicinity of the Circuit House near Cherrapunji . . . . (Khasi-Jaintia Hills District, Assam), Lat. 25° 15′ N, and Long. 91° 44′ E, altitude above mean sea level 4369 ft. or ca. 1330 metres", India. Synonymy by Biju, Garg, Gokulakrishnan, Sivaperuman, Thammachoti, Ren, Gopika, Bisht, Hamidy, and Shouche, 2020, Zootaxa, 4878: 47.

Rhacophorus bipunctatus — Inger, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 543.

Chirixalus cherrapunjiae — Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 53; Chen, Prendini, Wu, Zhang, Suwannapoom, Chen, Jin, Lemmon, Lemmon, Stuart, Raxworthy, Murphy, Yuan, and Che, 2020, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 145 (106724): 5. 

Rhacophorus htunwini Wilkinson, Thin, Lwin, and Shein, 2005, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 56: 43. Holotype: CAS 229893, by original designation. Type locality: "Nagmung Township, Au Yin Ga Camp (27° 17′ 36.9″ N, 97° 51′ 45.3″ E), Putao District, Kachin State, Myanmar, elevation approximately 878 m". Synonymy by Bordoloi, Bortamuli, and Ohler, 2007, Zootaxa, 1653: 9.

Chiromantis cherrapunjiae — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 367.

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) bipunctatus — Mahony, Kamei, Brown, and Chan, 2024, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 74: 253, by implication. 

English Names

Himalaya Flying Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 113; Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 61).

Twin-spotted Tree Frog (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 67; Neang and Holden, 2008, Field Guide Amph. Cambodia: 113; Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 50).

Double-spotted Treefrog (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 268; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 117).

Orange-webbed Tree Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 142).

Twin-spotted Bushfrog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 156).

Double-spotted Red-webbed Tree Frog (Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 109).

Htun Win's Treefrog (Rhacophorus htunwini [no longer recognized]; original publication).

Double-spotted Orange-webbed Treefrog (Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 64; Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 44).

Cherrapunji Bubble-nest Frog (Philautus cherrapunjiae [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 112).

Cherrapunji Bush Frog (Philautus cherrapunjiae [no longer recognized]: Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 66; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 88).

Cherrapunjee Bush Frog (Philautus cherrapunjiae [no longer recognized]: Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 89).

Double-spotted Tree Frog (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 14).


Eastern Himalayan region of northeastern India (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and Nagaland), adjacent northern and southeastern Bangladesh, and eastern Tibet (China) to Yunnan, Hunan, Hainan, and Guangxi, China, and Laos and Vietnam in the Annam Mountains and the Tay-Nguyen Plateau; Cardamom Mountains of southwestern Cambodia; Karin Hills of Myanmar and peninsular Myanmar; northern peninsular, western and eastern Thailand (see comment); peninsular Malaysia (but see comment). 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, People's Republic of, India, Laos, Malaysia, Malaysia, West (Peninsular), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam


In the Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) reinwardtii group of Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 77 (see comment under Rhacophorus for dissenting opinion). Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 268–269, provided a brief account, map, and figure. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 203, provided a brief account. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 132–133. Reported for southwestern Cambodia by Ohler, Swan, and Daltry, 2002, Raffles Bull. Zool., 50: 465–481. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 156–157, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Leong and Lim, 2003, Raffles Bull. Zool., 51: 128–126, provided a record from Raub District, Pahang, West Malaysia. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 39, provided specific localities for Vietnam and (p. 150) a photograph. Reported for Pulau Langkawi, Kadeh, northwestern West Malaysia, by Grismer, Youmans, Wood, Ponce, Wright, Jones, Johnson, Sanders, Gower, Yaakob, and Lim, 2006, Hamadryad, 30: 61–74. Stuart, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 478, provided a record for Sayaboury Province, Laos. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 98, provided systematic notes, access to literature, and range. Ao, Bordoloi, and Ohler, 2003, Zoos' Print J., 18: 1117–1125, provided a specific locality for Nagaland, northeastern India. Stuart and Emmett, 2006, Fieldiana, Zool., N.S., 109: 11, provided records for the Cadamom Mountains, southwestern Cambodia. Bain, Nguyen, and Doan, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 111, provided records for Thua Thien-Hue and Lao Cai provinces, Vietnam, and briefly discussed the range. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317–324, provided a record for Manipur, northeastern India. Chakma, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 478, provided a record of nominal Rhacophorus htunwini from Bangladesh. Nguyen, Tran, Nguyen, and Pham, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 364, suggested that all records of Rhacophorus bipunctatus actually refer to Rhacophorus rhodopus. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 769–771, provided an account and a spot map for China and assigned this species to their Rhacophorus verrucopus group. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted no larval descriptions in the literature. Neang and Holden, 2008, Field Guide Amph. Cambodia: 113, provided a photograph, brief account of identification, ecology, and range in Cambodia. Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 50, provided a brief account for northeastern India. Reza and Mukul, 2009, Herpetol. Rev., 40: 447, provided a record for Bangladesh and commented on the range. Grismer, Chan, Grismer, Wood, and Ahmad, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 147–160, reported localities from the Banjaran Bintang Mountains, northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 109–111, provided brief characterizations and photographs as both Rhacophorus bipunctatus and Rhacophorus htunwini. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 451, provided a brief account for China including photographs of specimens. Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 61–61, provided an account for Xizang, China. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 533, provided an account, photographs, and a range map. Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 88–89, provided a photograph and brief account for eastern Thailand, and (p. 140), detailed the range in Thailand, as Rhacophorus cf. bipunctatusChan, Grismer, and Brown, 2018, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 127: 1010–1019, suggested, albeit tentatively, on the basis of molecular evidence, that the peninsular Malaysia populations of Rhacophorus bipunctatus are actually Rhacophorus rhodopus, although the seeming allopatry of the nominal populations is confusing, suggesting that dense sampling is needed in the intervening geography within the range of the complex. Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 64–60, provided a brief account for South Tanintharyi, peninsular Myanmar. Decemson, Biakzuala, Solanki, Barman, and Lalremsanga, 2020, IRCF Rept. & Amph., 27: 242–244, reported the species from Mizoram, northeastern India. See comments by Hakim, Trageser, Ghose, Das, Rashid, and Rahman, 2020, Check List, 16: 1239–1268, who reported the species from Lawachara National Park, Sylhet Division, northeastern Bangladesh. See taxonomic discussion of Philautus cherrapunjiae by Biju, Garg, Gokulakrishnan, Sivaperuman, Thammachoti, Ren, Gopika, Bisht, Hamidy, and Shouche, 2020, Zootaxa, 4878: 47. Ahmad and Mim, 2020, IRCF Rept. & Amph., 27: 36–41, reported localities from the Bandarban District, southeastern Bangladesh. Che, Jiang, Yan, and Zhang, 2020, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 361–367, provided a detailed account for Tibet, China. Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 62, conjectured (following earlier conjectures) that all records of this species from Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam are actually of Rhacophorus rhodopus. Data are needed here. Raj, Dutta, and Lalremsanga, 2022, Zootaxa, 5092: 493–500, reported on larval morphology. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 44, briefly discussed habitat, range, and identification in Myanmar.  


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