Theloderma horridum (Boulenger, 1903)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Theloderma > Species: Theloderma horridum

Ixalus horridus Boulenger, 1903, in Annandale and Robinson (eds.), Fasciculi Malayenses, 2(1): 139. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.7.97 (formerly 1903.4.13.111), 1947.2.7.99 (formerly 1903.4.13.112) and 1947.2.8.1–10 (formerly 1903.4.13.113–122) according to Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 37. Type locality: "near our camp on Bukit Besar", Pattani, Thailand.

Philautus horridusSmith, 1926, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 18: 80; Smith, 1930, Bull. Raffles Mus., 3: 117.

Rhacophorus (Philautus) horridusAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 52, 65.

Theloderma horridumTaylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 517.

Theloderma (Stelladerma) horridum — Poyarkov, Orlov, Moiseeva, Pawangkhanant, Ruangsuwan, Vassilieva, Galoyan, Nguyen, and Gogoleva, 2015, Russ. J. Herpetol., 22: 276. 

Nyctixalus horridus — Sivongxay, Davankham, Phimmachak, Phoumixay, and Stuart, 2016, Zootaxa, 4147:2 44. 

English Names

Thai Bug-eyed Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 114).

Black-brown Warted Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 151).

Malayan Warted Treefrog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 164).

Spiny Wart Frog (Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 64).

Horrible Bug-eyed Frog (Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 64). 


Peninsular Thailand (Nakhon Si Thammarat, Pattani, and Narathiwat provinces) and peninsular Malaysia, including Pulau Tioman; Singapore; northern Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia, and possibly Brunei); possibly to Sumatra (see comment).


See accounts by Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 469–471(as Philautus horridus), Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 517–519. and Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 93–94 (as Philautus horridus), for accounts. Inger, Stuebing, and Tan, 1995, Raffles Bull. Zool., 43: 115–131, provided Borneo record. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 138–139. Grismer, Escobar, and Youmans, 2002, Herpetol. Rev., 33: 222, reported the Pulau Tioman record and commented on the range. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 164–165, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. See Orlov, Dutta, Ghate, and Kent, 2006, Russ. J. Herpetol., 13: 155–175, for brief comments. Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 82, provided a photograph and brief account for a Theloderma sp. in Brunei, which may be of this species. Figueroa and Selveindran, 2011, Nature in Singapore, 4: 259–262, reported this species from Taban Valley of the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore. Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 141, detailed the range in Thailand. See brief account by Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 64–65, for the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia. Sumarli, Grismer, Anuar, Muin, and Quah, 2015, Check List, 11(4, Art. 1679): 15, reported a specimen from Mount Tebu, Terregganu, West Malaysia, and briefly reported on its morphology and habitat. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 448–449, provided a brief account (description, photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). Sumatra has been included in the range by some authors but the reasons for this are unclear. 

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