Rhinoderma rufum (Philippi, 1902)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhinodermatidae > Genus: Rhinoderma > Species: Rhinoderma rufum

Heminectes rufus Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 10. Holotype: MNHNC according to the original publication, lost, although illustrated by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 279; IZUA A 1323 (from type locality) designated neotype by Formas, Pugin, and Jorquera, 1975, Physis, Buenos Aires, 34: 150; destroyed by fire on 3 December 2007. Type locality: "Vichuquen", Curicó Province, Chile; neotype from same locality.

Rhinoderma rufumFormas, Pugin, and Jorquera, 1975, Physis, Buenos Aires, 34: 148.

English Names

Chile Darwin's Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 114).


Coastal Range, from Curico Province to Ramadillas in Arauco Province, Chile, 0–500 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Chile

Endemic: Chile


Likely extinct; see Busse and Werning, 2002, Zool. Ges. Arten Populations. Mitt., 18: 16–18, who detailed the taxonomic history and disappearance of this species. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 541. Bourke, Busse, and Böhme, 2012, North-West. J. Zool., Romania, 8: 99–106, discussed the range and possible causes of decline. Formas, 2013, Zootaxa, 3641: 395–400, reported on the larval external morphology, oral morphology, and skeleton. Mella-Romero, Lamilla-Maulén, and Maya-Miranda, 2021, Bol. Chil. Herpetol., 8: 60–62, discussed the southern limit of the range and rejected records from Isla Mocha or Nahuelbuta National Park, Chile. 

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