Ambystoma velasci Dugès, 1888

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Ambystomatidae > Genus: Ambystoma > Species: Ambystoma velasci

Siredon Tigrina Velasco, 1879, Naturaleza, 4: 212. Syntypes: Animals figured in plates 7, 8, and 9 in the original publication; deposition of specimens not stated; possibly MNHNP or MDUG. Type locality: "encontrada en al lago de Santa Isabel, cerca de la Villa de Guadelupe Hidalgo, Valle de México", D.F., Mexico. Secondary homonym of Salamandra tigrina Green, 1825 (= Ambystoma tigrinum). Distinctiveness from Ambystoma mavortium questioned by Cope, 1879, Am. Nat., 13: 456. 

Amblystoma velasci Dugès, 1888, Naturaleza, Ser. 2, 1: 142. Syntypes: Not stated or known to exist, according to Smith and Necker, 1943, An. Esc. Nac. Cienc. Biol., México, 3: 185; syntypes are MDUG 579-81, according to  Flores-Villela, Ríos-Muñoz, Magaña-Cota, and Quezadas-Tapia, 2016, Zootaxa, 4092: 37. Type locality: "Lago de Santa Isabel, Cerca de la Villa de Hidalgo, Mexico" (= Villa Gustavo Madero, Distrito Federal). Now within the limits of Ciudad México; see Maldonado-Koerdell, 1948, Mem. Rev. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Antonio Alzate, 56: 185-226). 

Ambystoma tigrinum velascoi Lafrentz, 1930, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 6: 105. Holotype: Not known with certainty, perhaps MM 53/29, but destroyed in WW II, according to Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 149. Type locality: "Texcoco-See" (Lake Texcoco, Mexico). See Smith and Taylor, 1948, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 194: 12, for discussion of authorship.

Ambystoma tigrinum velasciDunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 157.

Ambystoma subsalsum Taylor, 1943, Copeia, 1943: 152. Holotype: EHT-HMS 22139, by original designation; now FMNH 100007 according to Marx, 1976, Fieldiana, Zool., 69: 36. Type locality: "Lake Alchichica, Puebla", Mexico. Synonymy by Brandon, Maruska, and Rumph, 1982 "1981", Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., 80: 112. 

Ambystoma lacustris Taylor and Smith, 1945, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 95: 532. Holotype: USNM 117410, by original designation. Type locality: "Lake Zumpango, México", Mexico; corrected to "Lake Texcoco, Mexico, Mexico" by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 6; this verified by Brandon, 1989, in Armstrong and Malacinski (eds.), Developmental Biol. Axolotl: 18. Synonymy (with Ambystoma velasci) by Brandon, 1989, in Armstrong and Malacinski (eds.), Developmental Biol. Axolotl: 18; Brandon, 1989 "1988", Herpetologica, 44: 427-430. Incorrect gender of the species name (DRF).

Ambystoma subsalsum — Smith and Taylor, 1948, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 194: 11.

Ambystoma velasciTaylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 34: 795.

Ambystoma (Ambystoma) lacustrisTihen, 1958, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 3: 3.

Ambystoma (Ambystoma) subsalsum — Tihen, 1958, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 3: 3, 35.

Ambystoma taylori Brandon, Maruska, and Rumph, 1982 "1981", Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., 80: 116. Holotype: FMNH 212392, by original designation. Type locality: "Laguna Alchichica, Puebla, México, ca. 24 km SW Perote". Synonymy by Everson, Gray, Jones, Lawrence, Foley, Sovacool, Kratovil, Hotaling, Hime, Storfer, Parra-Olea, Percino-Daniel, Aguilar-Miguel, O'Neill, Zambrano, Shaffer, and Weisrock, 2021, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 18 (17: e2014719118). Supplementary information: Suppl. Inform. p. 3. 

Ambystoma lacustreBrame, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 555. Correction of the gender of the species name to neuter.

Ambystoma zumpangoensis González, Mendoza-Quijano, Mancilla, and Camarillo, 1985, Mem. 8ta Congr. Nac. Zool., Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico: 875. Types: Not stated. Type locality: "Cuenca del Valle de México". Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Smith and Smith, 1993, Synops. Herpetofauna Mex., 7: 11.

Ambystoma tigrinum valasciPetranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 112. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Ambystoma (Heterotriton) velasciDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161.

Ambystoma (Heterotriton) taylori — Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161.

Ambystoma (Heterotriton) subsalsum — Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161.

Ambystoma velasci taylori — Everson, Gray, Jones, Lawrence, Foley, Sovacool, Kratovil, Hotaling, Hime, Storfer, Parra-Olea, Percino-Daniel, Aguilar-Miguel, O'Neill, Zambrano, Shaffer, and Weisrock, 2021, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 18 (17: e2014719118). Supplementary information: Suppl. Inform. p. 3.

English Names

Plateau Tiger Salamander (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 9; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 28).

Alchachica Salamander (Ambystoma subsalsum [no longer recognized}: Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 28).

Taylor's Salamander (Ambystoma taylori [no longer recognized]: Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 9; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 28).

Distribution

Northwestern Chihuahua south along the eastern slope of the Sierra Madre Occidental and southern Nuevo Leon to Hidalgo in the Sierra Madre Oriental, west to Zacatecas, and south to southwestern Jalisco and into the Transverse Volcanic range of central Mexico east through Hidalgo to montane central Veracruz (municipalities of Perote, Acultzingo, Las Vigas de Ramírez, Villa Aldama, and Acajete) and Puebla (Lago Alchichica).  

Comment

 Shaffer and McKnight, 1996, Evolution, 50: 417–43, presented data that suggested that the status of the Mexican species related to Ambystoma tigrinum are controversial and/or unstable, and that some populations of Ambystoma tigrinum velasci are highly distinctive from each other, in some cases being more closely related to other species than to each other. Subsequently, Irschick and Shaffer, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 30-49, recognized taxonomically Ambystoma velasci as a species distinct from Ambystoma tigrinum (in the sense of including Ambystoma mavortium), although they noted that Ambystoma velasci might not be monophyletic with respect to some of the insular Mexican species of Ambystoma.  Highton, 2000, in Bruce et al., Biol. Plethodontid Salamanders: 221, suggested that populations from Chihuahua, Jalisco, and Mexico, Mexico, likely represented distinct species and that populations currently under the names Ambystoma granulosum, Ambystoma lermaensis, Ambystoma altamirani, and Ambystoma velasci in the region of the state of Mexico might represent another.  Ambystoma subsalsum was resurrected from the synonymy of Ambystoma velasci for populations at low elevations from eastern Durango and Zacatecas (and presumably to Puebla, the site of the type locality) by Webb, 2004, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 40: 122-143, where it had been placed by Brandon, Maruska, and Rumph, 1982 "1981", Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., 80: 112. The rationale behind this action is not clear in the original publication (DRF). Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 83-84, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Dundee and Liner, 1976, Herpetol. Rev., 7: 178, provided a record for Zacatecas, Mexico. Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 86, provided a brief account (as Ambystoma taylori), figure, and map. Lemos-Espinal and Dixon, 2013, Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí: 22-23, provided an account for San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Farr, Lazcano, and Lavín-Murcio, 2013, Herpetol. Rev., 44: 632-633, discussed the absence of Ambystoma in Tamaulipas, northeastern Mexico, and suggested that records along the border of that state in Texas, USA, likely are the result of release bait animals. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 95–99, provided brief accounts (as Ambystoma taylori, Ambystoma velasci, and Ambystoma subsalsum), photos, and maps. Lemos-Espinal and Smith, 2015, Check List, 11(1642): 1–11, noted the occurrence of the species in Hidalgo, Mexico. Lemos-Espinal and Dixon, 2016, Amph. Rept. Hidalgo: 328–329, provided a brief account and map for Hidalgo, Mexico. Lemos-Espinal, Smith, and Valdes-Lares, 2019, Amph. Rept. Durango: 87–88, provided a brief account for Durango, Mexico. Percino-Daniel, Gómez Llamas, and Contreras López, 2019, Herpetol. Notes, 12: 351–352, discussed the range and provided an new record from the Sierra de Cacoma, southwestern Jalisco, Mexico. Contreras-Calvario, Soto-Pozos, Castillo Juárez, Calzada-Arciniega, and Parra-Olea, 2021, Herpetol. Notes, 14: 469–473, provided new records from Veracruz, Mexico, and discussed the range. Everson, Gray, Jones, Lawrence, Foley, Sovacool, Kratovil, Hotaling, Hime, Storfer, Parra-Olea, Percino-Daniel, Aguilar-Miguel, O'Neill, Zambrano, Shaffer, and Weisrock, 2021, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 18 (17: e2014719118): 1–10, included this species in their study of molecular evolution and evolution of life histories in the Ambystoma tigrinum complex. And,  Everson, Gray, Jones, Lawrence, Foley, Sovacool, Kratovil, Hotaling, Hime, Storfer, Parra-Olea, Percino-Daniel, Aguilar-Miguel, O'Neill, Zambrano, Shaffer, and Weisrock, 2021, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 18 (17: e2014719118). Supplementary information: Suppl. Inform. p. 3, discussed taxonomy. Morales Garcia, Morales Garcia, Leyte-Manrique, and García Díaz, 2021, Rev. Latinoam. Herpetol., 4: 173–176, reported several localities in the vicinity of Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. 

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