Bolitoglossa palmata (Werner, 1897)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae > Genus: Bolitoglossa > Species: Bolitoglossa palmata

Spelerpes palmatus Werner, 1897, Zool. Anz., 20: 266. Syntypes: NHMW, ZIUW, and ZSM; ZIUW q43 (now NHMW 22862) designated lectotype by Brame and Wake, 1962, Copeia, 1962: 173; this specimen renumbered as NHMW 22862, according to Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 17, and  Gemel, Gassner, and Schweiger, 2019, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, Ser. B, 121: 44. Type locality: "Ecuador"; restricted to "'Cordillera', Ecuador" by Brame and Wake, 1962, Copeia, 1962: 174.

Bolitoglossa palmataBrame and Wake, 1962, Copeia, 1962: 173.

Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) palmataParra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 336.

English Names

Amazon Mushroomtongue Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 30).

Guacamayo Mushroomtongue Salamander (Raffaëlli, 2022, Salamanders & Newts of the World: 736).


Amazonian slopes of the western Andes, from Caquetá, Colombia, through Ecuador to near the Peruvian border, 1600–2200 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Colombia, Ecuador


In the Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) adspersa group of Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 336. See account by Brame and Wake, 1963, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 69: 25. Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 258, provided a brief account and map. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 563. Acosta-Galvis and Gutiérrez-Lamus, 2012, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 52: 212, provided the first records from Caquetá, Colombia. Elmer, Bonett, Wake, and Lougheed, 2013, BMC Evol. Biol., 13(59): 1–16, discussed relationships, biogeography, and cryptic diversity. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 340, discussed the results of Elmer et al. (2013), the unnamed species, and provided a brief account, photography, and range map. For comparison of morphometric and dentition characters of Bolitoglossa altamazonica, Bolitoglossa peruviana, Bolitoglossa caldwellae, Bolitoglossa paraensis, Bolitoglossa palmata, and Bolitoglossa awafun, see  Cusi, Gagliardi-Urrutia, Brcko, Wake, and von May, 2020, Zootaxa, 4834: Tables 6–7. Camper, Torres-Carvajal, Ron, Nilsson, Arteaga-Navarro, Knowles, and Arbogast, 2021, Check List, 17: 729–751, provided a record from Wildsumaco Wildlife Sanctuary, Napo Province, Ecuador. Raffaëlli, 2022, Salamanders & Newts of the World: 736–737, provided an account summarizing systematics, life history, population status, and distribution (including a polygon map).  

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