Bolitoglossa robusta (Cope, 1894)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae > Genus: Bolitoglossa > Species: Bolitoglossa robusta

Oedipus robustus Cope, 1894, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 46: 194. Holotype: AMNH 5464, according to Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 261. Type locality: "Faldas of Volcano Irazu", Catón de Cartago, Provincia de Cartago, Costa Rica. Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 94, commented on the type locality.

Magnadigita robustaTaylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 30: 218.

Bolitoglossa robustaWake and Brame, 1963, Copeia, 1963: 386.

Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) robustaParra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 336.

English Names

Robust Mushroomtongue Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 30).

Ringtail Salamander (Hanken, Wake, and Savage, 2005, Copeia, 2005: 240).


Humid premontane and lower montane areas in the the mountains of north-central and eastern Costa Rica (500-2048 m) and of Bocas del Toro Province, Panama (650–2100 m).


In the Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) schizodactyla group of Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 336; formerly in the Bolitoglossa subpalmata group of Wake and Lynch, 1976, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 25: 1–65. See accounts by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 136–137, and Hanken, Wake, and Savage, 2005, Copeia, 2005: 240–243 (where it was rediagnosed and redelimited). See García-París, Parra-Olea, and Wake, 2008, Herpetol. J., 18: 23–31, for systematic comments. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 40–69, compared this species with others from Central America and provided a map and photograph. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 326, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map. 

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