Necturus beyeri Viosca, 1937

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Proteidae > Genus: Necturus > Species: Necturus beyeri

Necturus beyeri Viosca, 1937, Copeia, 1937: 123. Holotype: USNM 102674, by original designation. Type locality: "Upper Calcasieu River near Oakdale, [Allen Parish,] Louisiana", USA.

Necturus lödingi Viosca, 1937, Copeia, 1937: 126. Holotype: USNM 61752, by original designation. Type locality: "Enslava Creek, near Mobile, [Mobile County,] Alabama", USA. Corrected to "Eslava Creek near Mobile" by Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 35. Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 17, reported the data associated with the holotype as "Mertz Station [now a neighborhood of Mobile], Eslava Creek, near Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama", USA. Misspelled as "Enslava Creek" by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 14. Synonymy by Guyer, Murray, Bart, Crother, Chabarria, Bailey, and Dunn, 2020, J. Nat. Hist., London, 54: 15. 

Necturus lödingi — Smith, 1938, Zool. Rec., 74: 32; Bart, Bailey, Ashton, and Moler, 1997, J. Herpetol., 31: 192–201.

Necturus punctatus lodingi — Chermock, 1952, Mus. Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist., 33: 23; Neill, 1954, Publ. Res. Div. Ross Allen’s Rept. Inst., 1: 75-97; Hecht, 1958, Proc. Staten Island Inst. Arts Sci., 21: 14; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34. Justified emendation of the species name.

Necturus maculosus beyeriSchmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 13.

Necturus beyeri beyeriHecht, 1958, Proc. Staten Island Inst. Arts Sci., 21: 16.

Necturus punctatus beyeriBrode, 1970, Dissert. Abstr. Internatl., Ser. B, 30: 5288.

Necturus (Parvurus) beyeriDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 147.

Necturus (Parvurus) lodingi — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 147. 

English Names

Beyer's Mudpuppy (Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 29).

Speckled Waterdog (Viosca, 1949, Pop. Sci. Bull., Louisiana Acad. Sci., 1: 9).

Beyer's Waterdog (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 13).

Gulf Coast Waterdog (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 13; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 175; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 244; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 24; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 15; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 28; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 30).

Loeding's Mudpuppy ([no longer recognized] Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 35).

Mobile Waterdog ([no longer recognized] Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 13; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174).

Mobile Dwarf Waterdog ([no longer recognized] Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 8).

Western Waterdog (Guyer, Murray, Bart, Crother, Chabarria, Bailey, and Dunn, 2020, J. Nat. Hist., London, 54: 32). 

Distribution

Two populations on either side of the Red River and Mississippi River Valleys: (1) West-central Louisiana to northeastern and eastern Texas, USA. Florida Parishes of southeastern Louisiana east to northeastern Mississippi, east-central and northeastern Alabama (likely into adjacent northwestern Georgia) and the drainages of the Mobile Embayment. See comment. 

Comment

See comments under Necturus alabamensis and Necturus lodingi. Bart, Bailey, Ashton, and Moler, 1997, J. Herpetol., 31: 192-201, suggested that this nominal taxon likely contains more than one species, USA, and suggested that populations on the eastern Gulf slope from Lake Pontchartrain through Ochlockonee river drainages be referred to as "Necturus sp. cf. beyeri". See account by Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 419–422. Guyer, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 867–868, provided a detailed account that summarized the biology and conservation literature. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 220, provided a brief account, photograph, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 127, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. Chabarria, Murray, Moler, Bart, Crother, and Guyer, 2018, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 56: 352–363, discussed the systematics of this complex, restricting the name Necturus beyeri to western Louisiana and eastern Texas, USA. The authors recognized a (1) Pearl River species from the Pearl River drainage of southeastern Louisiana and south-central Mississippi; and (2) a Mobile River species from the eastern quarter of Mississippi through central and northern Alabama to northeastern Georgia, USA. The population bearing the old name Necturus lodingi was named as a species and was so treated by several authors (e.g., Chermock, 1952, Mus. Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist., 33: 23; Neill, 1954, Publ. Res. Div. Ross Allen’s Rept. Inst., 1: 75–97; Hecht, 1958, Proc. Staten Island Inst. Arts Sci., 21: 14) as conspecific with Necturus punctatus, although Gunter and Brode, 1964, Herpetologica, 20: 122–123, placed Necturus lodingi in the synonymy of Necturus alabamensisBart, Bailey, Ashton, and Moler, 1997, J. Herpetol., 31: 192–201, discussed taxonomic issues, problems, and delimited the ranges of Necturus beyeri and Necturus alabamensis, suggested that the situation from east of Lake Pontchartrain (Louisiana) to and including the Ochlockonee River drainage of the panhandle of Florida (and including the type locality of Necturus lodingi) was unresolved and deserved additional scrutiny, and likely involved more than one species. However, at least one of these populations would almost certainly bear the name Necturus lodingi. They recommended that these coastal populations of small waterdogs collectively be referred to as "Necturus n. sp. cf. beyeri" until those populations could be taxonomically resolved. Guyer, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 873, provided a brief discussion and wrote that the usage "Necturus cf. beyeri" for populations within this region was consistent with Guyer's unpublished molecular data. This left the status of populations, including nominal Necturus lodingi (the oldest available name within the delimited range) unresolved (as well was leaving a big question of what "consistent with unpublished data" might mean in this context). 15 years later Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77–161, applied the name Necturus lodingi to this catch-all informal collection of populations, and included Necturus lodingi within a subgenus, Parvurus, which includes nominal Necturus lodingi, Necturus beyeri, and Necturus punctatus. Their association of the name Necturus lodingi, however, with populations extending east from the Mobile Bay into Florida was almost certainly incorrect as previous authors have suggested that multiple species are involved and one would think that if Necturus lodingi was conspecific with the rest of these populations that Bart and Guyer would have taken this easy remedy. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 221, provided a brief account, photograph, and map in the sense of representing both nominal Necturus cf beyeri + Necturus lodingiGuyer, Murray, Bart, Crother, Chabarria, Bailey, and Dunn, 2020, J. Nat. Hist., London, 54: 15–41, discussed the systematics of Gulf Coast Necturus and redelimited the species as here recognized. However, if their tree of relationships is taken seriously as a phylogeny their Eastern Necturus beyeri is composed of drainage-loyal populations that are more closely related to Necturus alabamensis (Mobile population), and the Western population of nominal Necturus beyeri is more closely related to two populations of Necturus maculosus, two populations of Eastern Necturus beyeri ("Ponchartrain" and "Pearl"). If this tree is correct then several cryptic species await naming (DRF). 

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