Triturus pygmaeus (Wolterstorff, 1905)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Salamandridae > Subfamily: Pleurodelinae > Genus: Triturus > Species: Triturus pygmaeus

Triton marmoratus forma pygmaea Wolterstorff, 1905, C. R. Séances 6th Congr. Internatl. Zool., Berne, 1904: 260. Type(s): MM, destroyed in W.W.II, according to Brame and Gorham, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 102. Type locality: "Südspanien, um Cadix und Algeciras"; restricted to "Cadiz, Südspanien [= southern Spain]" by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 12.

Triturus marmoratus pygmaeusMertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 12.

Triturus pygmaeusGarcía-París, Arano, and Herrero, 2001, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 15: 115.

Triturus (Pyronicia) pygmaeusDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 67.

Triturus pygmaeus pygmaus —  Arntzen, 2023, Contrib. Zool., Amsterdam,  : 23. 

Triturus pygmaeus lusitanicus Arntzen, 2023, Contrib. Zool., Amsterdam,  : 23. Holotype: MNCN 51799, by original designation. Type locality: "Granja, Portugal, at 7.262 western longitude and 38.318 northern latitude, elevation 160 m above sea level". Zoobank publication registration: 83C95223-3AB5-4EEF-B596-E5F7F05CCA9D (November 2023). 

English Names

Southern Marbled Newt (Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 40; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 42).

Pygmy Marbled Newt (Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 141).

Lusitanian Pygmy Newt (Triturus pygmaeus lusitanicusArntzen, 2023, Contrib. Zool., Amsterdam,  : 24).


Central-southwestern Spain and southern Portugal, below 1450 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Portugal, Spain


García-París, Arano, and Herrero, 2001, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 15: 115–126, discussed the lack of intergradation with Triturus marmoratus and considered this population a distinct species. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 42, provided a brief account, figure, and map. See account by Herrero, Montori, and Arano, 2003, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(IIA): 543–553. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 136, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Espregueira Themudo and Arntzen, 2007, Herpetol. J., 17: 24–30, reported on genetic distinctiveness in parapatry with Triturus marmoratus. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 642–643. Wielstra and Arntzen, 2011, BMC Evol. Biol., 11(162): 1–8, reported ln the molecular phylogenetics of the species and its near relatives. Wielstra, Sillero, Vörös, and Arntzen, 2014, Amphibia-Reptilia, 35: 376–381, provided a dot map. Sparreboom, 2014, Salamanders Old World: 354–356, reviewed the biology, characteristics, distribution, reproduction, and conservation of the species. Arntzen, Wielstra, and Wallis, 2014, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 113: 604–622, reported on hybrid/contact zone with Triturus marmoratus. Speybroeck, Beukema, Bok, and Van Der Voort, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Brit. Eur.: 102–104, provided a brief account and distribution map. See Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 141, for brief summary of identifying morphology and biology, a range map, as well as a photograph. Arntzen, López-Delgado, van Riemsdijk, and Wielstra, 2021, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 59: 459–465, noted a population showing significant genetic differentiation in Cádiz, Andalusia, Spain, and reported on evidence for a hybrid zone with Triturus marmoratus having moved 215 km in the Iberian Peninsula. Gaczorek, Marszałek, Dudek, Arntzen, Wielstra, and Babik, 2023, Mol. Ecol., 32: 867–880, reported on introgression of the MHC gene across a hybrid zone between Triturus pygmaeus and Triturus marmoratusRaffaëlli, 2022, Salamanders & Newts of the World: 386–388, provided an account, summarizing systematics, life history, population status, and distribution (including a polygon map). Arntzen, 2023, Contrib. Zool., Amsterdam,  : 1– 26, distinguished and mapped two subspecies, Triturus pygmaeus lusitanicus found in the south-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula with the exception of the Betic Cordillera, and meeting the nominate subspecies inside Doñana National Park. Arntzen, 2024, Contrib. Zool., Amsterdam: 3, provided a polygon distribution map for the subspecies, Triturus pygmaeus pygmaeus and Triturus pygmaus lusitanicus, on the Iberian peninsula. Kazilas, Dufresnes, France, Kalaentzis, Martínez-Solano, de Visser, Arntzen, and Wielstra, 2024, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 194 (108043): 1–11, reported on molecular phylogeography of Triturus marmoratus, Triturus pygmaeus, and Triturus rudolfi (as Triturus pygmaeus West).    

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