Ingerophrynus divergens (Peters, 1871)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Ingerophrynus > Species: Ingerophrynus divergens

English Names

Malayan Dwarf Toad (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 90).

Crested Toad (Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 147; Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 27).


Lower elevations of Natuna I., Sumatra, and Borneo; reported in peninsular Thailand, so expected in Malaya.


Removed from the synonymy of Ingerophrynus biporcatus by Inger and Tan, 1996, Raffles Bull. Zool., 44: 555, where it had been placed by Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 228; in the Bufo biporcatus group by implication. See account by Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 47 (as Bufo biporcatus). See also identification table by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 26, to compare this species with others in the Sunda Shelf region. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 76-77, provided an account. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 90-91, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 147, provided a brief description. Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 27, provided a photograph and a brief account (as Bufo divergens). Amram, Zainudin, and Wahid, 2018, Sains Malaysiana, 47: 1-7, reported on the mating call. Chan and Grismer, 2019, BMC Evol. Biol., 19(95): 3, suggested that the sequence divergence between this species and Ingerophrynus gollum is so low (below 3%) that they may be conspecific. Haas, Kueh, Joseph, bin Asri, Das, Hagmann, Schwander, and Hertwig, 2018, Evol. Syst., 2: 89–114, provided a brief account of morphology for the Sabah population. 

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.