Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella arenarum

Bufo arenarum Hensel, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 143. Syntypes: 7 specimens noted although location of deposit not designated. Kwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, 2006, Iheringia, Zool., 96: 484, located 3 of 7 syntypes in the ZMB and designated ZMB 6779 as lectotype. Type locality: "bei der Stadt Rio-Grande do Sul" (= near the city of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil); stated as "Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul", Brazil, by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 18.

Bufo mendocinus Philippi, 1869, Arch. Naturgesch., 35: 44. Holotype: MNHNC by original designation. Type locality: "Provinz Mendoza . . . bei Vistaflor", Argentina. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1884, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 14: 389; Boulenger, 1886, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 18: 442; Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 142.

Bufo marinus var. platensis Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862–1865: 202. Syntypes: 34 specimens, in MCNM; given as MNCN 3101-3113, 3135-3143, 3145-50 (Rio-Grande-do-Sul, Brasil); 3131-3134 (no data); 3144 (La Plata, Arentina); 15982 (La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina), by González-Fernández, García-Díez, and San Segundo, 2009, Spixiana, München, 32: 268, with discussion of ambiguities. Type locality: "Montevideo . . . Rio Grande do Sul . . . Córdoba, Tucumán y Campo San Roque". Synonymy (with Bufo arenarum) by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 314. Considered a synonym of Bufo marinus by Savage, 1978, in Espada's Vert. Viaje Pacif.: vii-xvii (in error?), without discussion.

Phryniscus connectens Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 24. Type(s): MNHNC but number of specimens not noted in the original publication. Type locality: "Montevideo", Uruguay. Synonymy (with Bufo spinulosus) by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Synonymy (with Bufo arenarum) by Klappenbach, 1968, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 23: 148.

Bufo arenariusLutz, 1934, Mem. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 28: 120, 144. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo arenarumGallardo, 1964, Neotropica, 10: 24; Gallardo, 1965, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 17: 65.

Bufo arenarum mendocinusGallardo, 1964, Neotropica, 10: 24; Gallardo, 1965, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 17: 70; Laurent, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 25: 81.

Bufo arenarum platensisGallardo, 1964, Neotropica, 10: 24; Gallardo, 1965, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 17: 70. Status as subspecies rejected by Laurent, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 25: 70.

Bufo arenarum chaguar Gallardo, 1965, Neotropica, 11: 84. Holotype: MACN 18922, by original designation. Type locality: "Argentina, Salta, Pocitos". Status rejected by Laurent, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 25: 70, 75.

Chaunus arenarumFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364; Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella arenarumChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication; Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76.

English Names

Argentine Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 37).

Common Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).


Central Bolivia east of the Andes (departments of Cochabamba, Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, and Tarija) south to Chubut Province, Argentina; and allopatric population along the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to the eastern and southern Uruguay; likely to be found in Paraguay.


In the Bufo marinus group according to Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Laurent, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 25: 67-80, demonstrated that most subspecies could not be maintained; this was further supported by Cei, 1972 "1971", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 28: 91-105, and followed by Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 173-178 (although he implied that some subspecies might be distinct species), but Braun, 1978, Iheringia, Zool., 52: 77, still recognized four subspecies. See also account (under Bufo arenarum arenarum) by Klappenbach and Langone, 1992, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, Ser. 2, 8: 171-172. Olmos and Maneyro, 1998, Cuad. Herpetol., 12: 50, discussed the range in northeastern Uruguay (now Rhinella achavalii). De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 26, noted literature confusion with Rhinella poeppigii (as Bufo). Lavilla and Cei, 2001, Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 28: 21-23, discussed recent literature regarding this species. See brief account by Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 82. Kwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, 2006, Iheringia, Zool., 96: 479-485, provided a key to distinguish this species from other members of the Rhinella marina group. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 24, briefly discussed the absence of any vouchers of this species from Paraguay, although its presence in the country is likely. Maneyro and Kwet, 2008, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., Ser. A, Neue Ser., 1: 95-121, provided discussion of taxonomic, geographical, and conservation status as well as natural history. Céspedez, 1996, Herpetol. Rev., 27: 148, provided a record for Chaco Province, Argentina, and commented on the range in that country. Vallinoto, Sequeira, Sodré, Bernardi, Sampaio, and Schneider, 2010, Zool. Scripta, 39: 128-140, and Maciel, Garcia, Colli, and Schwartz, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: 787-797, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Rhinella marina group, including this species. Salas, Zavattieri, di Tada, Martino, and Bridarolli, 1998, Cuad. Herpetol., 12: 37–48, discussed the call. 

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