Craugastoridae Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Craugastoridae
129 species

Craugastoridae Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 1. Type genus: Craugastor Cope, 1862, by original designation.

Craugastorinae — Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 565.

Craugastorini — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 145. Tribe. 

English Names

Fleshbelly Frogs (Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 274). 

Flesh-bellied Frogs (Lemos-Espinal and Dixon, 2016, Amph. Rept. Hidalgo: 359).


Southern Arizona to central Texas (USA) and south through tropical and subtropical habitats to northwestern Ecuador and Colombia; Atlantic coastal forest of eastern and southern Brazil.


Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 1–182, provided an extensive systematic discussion of this taxon and its relationship to other former subtaxa of Brachycephaloidea (= Terrarana, an unranked taxon above-family-group, in their nomenclature). Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, provided a much larger analysis in terms of the number of species, but used a slightly smaller amount of data for the species used by Hedges et al., 2008, for the backbone of their analysis. The results are somewhat at odds with each other, with Pyron and Wiens, 2011, finding Strabomantidae to be nonmonophyletic and with former Craugastoridae (now Craugastorinae) imbedded within it and for this reason they placed the fragmented elements of Strabomantidae within Craugastoridae. Blackburn and Wake, 2011, In Zhang (ed.), Zootaxa, 3148: 39–55, briefly reviewed the nomenclatural history of this family-group taxon to that point in time, and retained the earlier delimitation of Craugastoridae and Strabomantidae. Fouquet, Loebmann, Castroviejo-Fisher, Padial, Orrico, Lyra, Roberto, Kok, Haddad, and Rodrigues, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65: 547–561, suggested that Craugastoridae in the sense of Hedges et al., 2008, was monophyletic, albeit on the basis of less dense taxon sampling than by Pyron and Wiens, 2011. Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 317–578, provided identification keys and accounts for the species in Guyana. Duellman and Lehr, 2009, Terrest.-breeding Frogs in Peru: 1–382, provided identification keys and accounts for the species found in Peru (as Strabomantidae). Taboada, Grant, Lynch, and Faivovich, 2013, Herpetologica, 69: 342–357, provided morphological synapomorphies for the Brachycephaloidea (= Terraranas) but could not find them for the contained Brachycephalidae, Craugastoridae, and Eleutherodactylidae. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 140–191, provided a key to the genera and species of Craugastoridae, and Eleutherodactylidae in Central America and provided maps and photographs of the species. Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 1–132, reformulated the systematics of the group and revised the subfamilies, subgenera, and species series and groups reflected in the records below. Motta, Taucce, Haddad, and Canedo, 2021, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 59: 663–679, discussed the history of the taxonomy of the group and the seeming instability of the phylogenetic position of the family within Brachycephaloidea. Streicher, Miller, Guerrero, Correa-Quezada, Ortiz, Crawford, Pie, and Wiens, 2018, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 119: 128–143, reported on a molecular study of hyloid frogs, finding Brachycephalidae to be the sister taxon of Eleutherodactylidae + Craugastoridae, and part of a large monophyletic group composed of Brachycephaloidea, Allophrynidae, Centrolenidae, Dendrobatoidea, Leptodactylidae, Odontophrynidae, and Bufonidae, which they termed Coummutabirana.

Contained taxa (129 sp.):

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