Craugastor polyptychus (Cope, 1886)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Craugastoridae > Genus: Craugastor > Species: Craugastor polyptychus

Hylodes polyptychus Cope, 1886, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 23: 276. Syntypes: USNM 14199 (2 specimens) according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 61; one of the syntypes renumbered as USNM 166894 and designated lectotype by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 261. Type locality: "Nicaragua"; locality data for the lectotype given as Nicaragua: Río San Juan: between Machuca and San Juan del Norte". 

Eleutherodactylus polyptychusStejneger, 1904, Annu. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. for 1902: 582-583, by implication; Noble, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 38: 328; Barbour and Dunn, 1921, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 34: 161; Lynch, 1965, Nat. Hist. Misc., 182: 7.

Microbatrachylus polyptychusTaylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 667.

Craugastor podiciferusCrawford and Smith, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 35: 551, by implication; Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 360.

Craugastor (Craugastor) polyptychusHedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 41.

English Names

Many-folds Flesh-bellied Frog (Cossel, Twining, Di Stefano, O’Brien, Reich, and Sandoval-Alanis, 2019, Herpetol. Conserv. Biol., 14: 236). 


Humid lowlands of the Atlantic drainage of southeastern Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and adjacent northwestern Panama, below 260 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama


Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 260, provided an account for this species, provisionally resurrected it from the synonymy of Eleutherodactylus bransfordii (where it had been placed by Savage and Emerson, 1970, Copeia, 1970: 623-644), noted its close relationship to Eleutherodactylus underwoodi, and placed it in his Eleutherodactylus rhodopis series, Eleutherodactylus rhodopis group. In the Craugastor rhodopis species series, Craugastor podiciferus species group of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 41, and of Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 123. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 140–191, provided a key to the genera and species of Brachycephaloidea (= Craugastoridae, Eleutherodactylidae) in Central America and provided maps and photographs of the species, including this one. McCranie, Sunyer, and Martínez-Fonseca, 2019, Rev. Nicaraguense Biodiversidad, 52: 27, suggested the distinction from Craugastor bransfordii requires additional study. Sunyer and Martínez-Fonseca, 2023, Rev. Nicaraguense Biodiversidad, 100: 27, excluded this species from their list of Nicaraguan species without explanation, although presumably treating it as a junior synonym of Craugastor bransfordii

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