Pristimantis caryophyllaceus (Barbour, 1928)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Strabomantidae > Subfamily: Pristimantinae > Genus: Pristimantis > Species: Pristimantis caryophyllaceus

Syrrhopus caryophyllaceus Barbour, 1928, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 10: 28. Holotype: MCZ 13039, by original designation. Type locality: "La Loma on the trail from Chiriquicito to Boquete, Bocas del Toro Province, Panama".

Eleutherodactylus caryophyllaceusDunn, 1937, Copeia, 1937: 163.

Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) caryophyllaceusLynch, 1996, in Powell and Henderson (eds.), Contr. W. Indian Herpetol.: 154; Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 222.

Pristimantis caryophyllaceusHeinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: Table 2.

Pristimantis (Hypodictyon) caryophyllaceusHedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 114.

English Names

La Loma Robber Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 73).


Lowland to lower montane regions on the Atlantic drainage from northern Costa Rica to the vicinity of Los Planes, western Panama, sea level to 1900 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Costa Rica, Panama


In the Eleutherodactylus cruentus group, according to Savage and DeWeese, 1981 "1980", Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 93: 940, which was considered by Lynch, 1976, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 61: 1–24, to be a subset of the Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) martinicensis series, Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group according to Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 222. Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 266–267, provided an account and placed this species in his Eleutherodactylus martinicensis series, Eleutherodactylus cruentus group. Miyamoto, 1984, J. Herpetol., 18: 256–263, reported on relationships of this species if other members of the Eleutherodactylus cruentus group in Central America. In the Pristimantis (Hypodictyon) ridens species series of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 114, and in the Pristimantis ridens species group of Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 126. Ryan, Lips, and Giermakowski, 2010, J. Herpetol., 44: : 193–200, noted that most records prior to 2010 from Panama and Colombia are assignable to Pristimantis educatoris. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 140–191, provided a key to the genera and species of Brachycephaloidea (= Craugastoridae, Eleutherodactylidae) in Central America and provided maps and photographs of the species, including this one. Batista, Hertz, Köhler, Mebert, and Veselý, 2014, Salamandra, 50: 155–171, present molecular data for the existence of three lineages in this complex, one of which bears the name Pristimantis educatoris. While the authors note the deep phylogenetic structure, they also point to confusing morphological variation and on this basis, opt to consider the three lineages to form one nominal species and place Pristimantis educatoris in synonymy. All this change represents, however, is a return under new jargon (e.g., "Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units") to an older notion of polytypic (e.g., multi-lineage) species. Also, due to the evidentiary confusion noted by the authors, rather than submerge Pristimantis educatoris, I (DRF) retain it in this catalogue and note that nominal Pristimantis caryophyllaceus remains composed of multiple phylogenetic lineages. 

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