Pristimantis fenestratus (Steindachner, 1864)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Strabomantidae > Subfamily: Pristimantinae > Genus: Pristimantis > Species: Pristimantis fenestratus

Hylodes fenestratus Steindachner, 1864, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 14: 249. Syntypes: NHMW 19940.1 (Río Mamoré) and 19940.2 (Borba), according to Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 21, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 25. Type locality: "Rio Mamoré, [Estado de Rondônia, Brazil,] und Borba [Estado do Amazonas]", Brazil.

Lithodytes cinereus Cope, 1885, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 23: 103. Types: Not stated or known to exist (not ASNP 14735, according to Dunn, 1949, Am. Mus. Novit., 1419: 350). Type locality: "Canutama, a distance of six hundred miles, and at Marrahan, a distance of seven hundred miles above its mouth on the Purus river", western Brazil. Synonymy, discussion of types and type locality by Lynch, 1988, Copeia, 1988: 254-256.

Eleutherodactylus fenestratusStejneger, 1904, Annu. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. for 1902: 582-583, by implication.

Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) fenestratusLynch, 1996, in Powell and Henderson (eds.), Contr. W. Indian Herpetol.: 154; Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 224.

Pristimantis fenestratusHeinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: Table 2.

Pristimantis (Pristimantis) fenestratusHedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 120.

English Names

Rio Mamore Robber Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 74).


Amazon Basin of eastern Peru, northeastern Bolivia, and Brazil east to about Manaus, 100–1800 m elevation; presumably to be found in extreme southeastern Colombia. Unnamed species in the complex as far east as Maranhão, Brazil. See comment.  

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bolivia, Brazil, Peru

Likely/Controversially Present: Colombia


Lynch, 1980, Am. Mus. Novit., 2696: 6, discussed this species and removed it from the synonymy of Eleuthrodactylus griseusZimmerman, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 235–246, and Zimmerman and Bogart, 1984, Acta Amazonica, 14: 473–520, reported on vocalization. Márquez, De la Riva, and Bosch, 1995, J. Zool., London, 237: 313–336, reported on vocalization in Bolivia. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) conspicillatus series, Eleutherodactylus conspicillatus group of Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 224. See comment under Eleutherodactylus bisignatus. Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 117–118, provided a brief account. Duellman, 2005, Cusco Amazonico: 267–269, provided an account (adultl morphology, description of the call, life history). In the Pristimantis conspicillatus species group of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 120, and Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 125. Padial and De la Riva, 2009, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 155: 97–122, provided a range map and detailed the advertisement call. França and Venâncio, 2010, Biotemas, 23: 71–84, provided a record for the municipality of Boca do Acre, Amazonas, with a brief discussion of the range. Bernarde, Machado, and Turci, 2011, Biota Neotrop., 11: 117–144, reported specimens from Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre, Brazil. See Duellman and Lehr, 2009, Terrest.-breeding Frogs in Peru: 178–179, for brief account. Motta, Menin, Almeida, and Hrbek, 2018, Zootaxa, 4438: 79–104, on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence divergence suggested that this nominal species is composed of at least two species. Records from Acre, Pará, and Maranhão, Brazil, were excluded by Araujo de Oliveira, Penhacek, Guimarães, Nascimento, Rodrigues, and Hernández-Ruz, 2019, MtDNA, Part A, 30: 731–738, as applying to unnamed species, recognized on molecular evidence. See brief account for the Manu region, Peru, by Villacampa-Ortega, Serrano-Rojas, and Whitworth, 2017, Amph. Manu Learning Cent.: 78–79. Araujo de Oliveira, Silva, Guimarães, Penhacek, Martínez, Rodrigues, Santana, and Hernández-Ruz, 2020, PLoS One, 15 (3: e0229971): 1–28, reported on the advertisement call.

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