Pristimantis gaigei (Dunn, 1931)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Strabomantidae > Subfamily: Pristimantinae > Genus: Pristimantis > Species: Pristimantis gaigei

Lithodytes gaigei Dunn, 1931, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 5: 387. Holotype: MCZ 10011, by original designation. Type locality: "Fort Randolph, Panama Canal Zone", Panama.

Eleutherodactylus gaigeiPiatt, 1934, Am. Midl. Nat., 15: 89-91; Lynch, 1996, J. Herpetol., 30: 279.

Eleutherodactylus gaigeaeTaylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 766. Unjustified emendation according to Dubois, 2007, Zootaxa, 1550: 67.

Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) gaigeiLynch, 1996, in Powell and Henderson (eds.), Contr. W. Indian Herpetol.: 154; Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 224.

Pristimantis gaigeaeHeinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: Table 2. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Pristimantis (Pristimantis) gaigeaeHedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 120. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

English Names

Fort Randolph Robber Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 75).


Atlantic drainage lowlands from extreme southeastern Costa Rica to eastern Panama and on the Pacific versant in central Colombia; populations in the river valleys of the Sinú, Cauca, and Magdalena.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama


In the Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri group, but with no close relative, according to Lynch, 1980, Herpetologica, 36: 178, who redescribed the holotype. Lynch, 1996, J. Herpetol., 30: 278-280, suggested that Taylor's (1952) emendation was unjustified, although (p. 388) Dunn explicitly associated the name with Helen Gaige. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) conspicillatus series, Eleutherodactylus conspicillatus group of Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 224. Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 263-264, provided an account, discussed the spelling of the species name, and included this species in his Eleutherodactylus conspicillatus series, Eleutherodactylus gaigeae group. Brandon-Jones, Duckworth, Jenkins, Rylands, and Sarmiento, 2007, Zootaxa, 1541: 41-48, discussed reasons for why gaigei is not emendable. In the Pristimantis conspicillatus species group of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 120, and Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 125. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 140–191, provided a key to the genera and species of Brachycephaloidea (= Craugastoridae, Eleutherodactylidae) in Central America and provided maps and photographs of the species, including this one. In the Pristimantis conspicillatus group, Pristimantis ramagii clade of Fouquet, Réjaud, Rodrigues, Ron, Chaparro, Osorno-Muñoz, Werneck, Hrbek, Lima, Camacho-Badani, Jaramillo-Martinez, and Chave, 2022, Syst. Biodiversity, 20(1: 2130464): 1–16, who reported on phylogenetics and biogeography.  

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