Pristimantis gladiator (Lynch, 1976)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Strabomantidae > Subfamily: Pristimantinae > Genus: Pristimantis > Species: Pristimantis gladiator

Eleutherodactylus gladiator Lynch, 1976, Herpetologica, 32: 316. Holotype: KU 143516, by original designation. Type locality: "3.3 km ESE Cuyuja, Napo Province, Ecuador, elevation 2350 m."

Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) gladiatorLynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 224.

Pristimantis gladiatorHeinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: Table 2.

Pristimantis (Pristimantis) gladiatorHedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 125.

Pristimantis (Trachyphrynus) gladiator — Franco-Mena, Guayasamin, Andrade-Brito, Yánez-Muñoz, and Rojas-Runjaic, 2023, PeerJ, 11 (e14715): 17.

English Names

Papallacta Valley Robber Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 75).


Papallacta Valley near Cuyuja, Napo Province, as well as Monte Olivio, Imbabura Province, Ecuador, in cloud forest at intermediate elevations (2270–2910 m) on the Amazonian slopes of the Andes; arguably from adjacent Putumayo Province, Colombia (see comment).

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Ecuador

Likely/Controversially Present: Colombia


Most closely related to Eleutherodactylus leoni and Eleutherodactylus pyrrhomerus according to Lynch, 1976, Herpetologica, 32: 317. In the monophyletic Eleutherodactylus pyrrhomerus assembly of the Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group, according to Lynch, 1984, Herpetologica, 40: 237. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) myersi series, Eleutherodactylus myersi group of Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 225. Mueses-Cisneros, 2005, Caldasia, 27: 235–236, provided records for Putumayo, Colombia (but this requires genetic confirmation). In the Pristimantis myersi species group of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 125, and of Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 126. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Eleutherodactylus gladiator) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 340. See note by Guayasamin and Funk, 2009, Zootaxa, 2220: 41–66, on this species at the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo, Ecuador, and provided the elevational range. See comments by Reyes-Puig, Reyes-Puig, Franco-Mena, Jost, and Yánez-Muñoz, 2022, ZooKeys, 1081: 60, commented on the systematics of this species. Reyes-Puig, Urgilés-Merchán, Franco-Mena, Guayasamin, Batallas-Revelo, and Reyes-Puig, 2023, ZooKeys, 1180: 257–293, discussed the species-level systematic of this taxon and discussed cranial and external morphology, distribution, molecular markers, and advertisement call. 

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