Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Strabomantidae > Subfamily: Pristimantinae > Genus: Pristimantis > Species: Pristimantis marmoratus

Hylodes marmoratus Boulenger, 1900, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Ser. 2, 8: 56. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.16.92 (formerly 1899.3.25.19), according to J.D. Lynch in Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 302. Type locality: "foot of Mt. Roraima, 3500 feet", Guyana. Type locality detailed by Kok, Dezfoulian, Means, Fouquet, and Barrio-Amorós, 2018, Eur. J. Taxon., 397: 3–4, and from the itinerary of the expedition suggested that the type locality was at or near "Kukenán River to a point about 8.0 km from the southern cliffs of Mt. Roraima, which is at 3500 feet elevation" in Venezuela. This disputed by Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 119.

Eleutherodactylus marmoratusStejneger, 1904, Annu. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. for 1902: 582–583, by implication; Crawford, 1931, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 21: 31.

Pristimantis marmoratusHeinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: Table 2; Myers and Donnelly, 2008, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 308: 147.

Pristimantis (Pristimantis) marmoratusHedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 128.

English Names

Marbled Robber Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 76).

Marbled South American Rain Frog (Kok and Kalamandeen, 2008, Intr. Taxon. Amph. Kaieteur Natl. Park: 242).


Known with certainty only from extreme southeastern Venezuela, and central-western Guyana; populations assigned this name prior to 2022 are now assigned to other species or considered as unnamed lineages; see comment. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Guyana, Venezuela


The revalidation of Pristimantis grandoculis, the naming of Pristimantis crepitaculus from within nominal Pristimantis marmoratus, and the recognition that populations on the pan-tepui highlands of southern Venezuela are unnamed species, by Fouquet, Peloso, Jairam, Lima, Mônico, Ernst, and Kok, 2022, Organisms Divers. Evol., 22: 1065–1098, suggests that earlier literature should be used with caution. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) martinicensis series, Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group of Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 228. See account by Rivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 80. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 212–213, provided a photo and brief account for French Guiana. In the Pristimantis (Pristimantis) unistrigatus species group of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 128. Not assignable to a species group according to Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 127. Kok and Kalamandeen, 2008, Intr. Taxon. Amph. Kaieteur Natl. Park: 242–243, provided an account of Pristimantis cf marmoratus. MacCulloch and Lathrop, 2009, R. Ontario Mus. Contrib. Sci., 4: 16, commented on specimens from Mount Ayanganna, Guyana. See account for Suriname population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 310–313. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 388–389, for brief account and records for Guyana. Señaris, Lampo, Rojas-Runjaic, and Barrio-Amorós, 2014, Guía Ilust. Anf. Parque Nac. Canaima: 98–99, provided a photograph and a brief account for the Parque Nacional de Canaima, Venezuela. Kok, Dezfoulian, Means, Fouquet, and Barrio-Amorós, 2018, Eur. J. Taxon., 397: 1–30, amended the diagnosis and reported on its advertisement call, breeding ecology, and phylogenetic relationships and suggested that records from French Guiana represent at least two unnamed species and records from Suriname and from the slopes of Marahuaka-tepui, Amazonas, Venezuela, are misidentifications. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 119, for comments on range and literature. Taucce, Costa-Campos, Carvalho, and Michalski, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 836: 96–130, noted (without being specific) that four of the five records of Pristimantis marmoratus from Amapá, Brazil, are actually Pristimantis crepitaculus (the other record from Serra do Navio, Amapá, Brazil, reported by Silva e Silva and Costa-Campos, 2018, ZooKeys, 762: 136, applying to Pristimantis grandoculis) reported on distribution, literature, and conservation status for Amapá, Brazil.  

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