Pristimantis ockendeni (Boulenger, 1912)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Strabomantidae > Subfamily: Pristimantinae > Genus: Pristimantis > Species: Pristimantis ockendeni

Hylodes ockendeni Boulenger, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 8, 10: 187. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.16.88-90 (formerly 1907.5.7.19-21), according to J.D. Lynch in Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 307. Type locality: "La Union, Rio Huacamayo, Carabaya, [Departamento Puno,] S.E. Peru, 2000 feet", southeastern Peru.

Eleutherodactylus ockendeni — Dunn, 1931, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 5: 411.

Hylodes hylaeformis Melin, 1941, Göteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitterh. Samh. Handl., Ser. B, 1: 48. Holotype: NHMG 493, according to See Duellman and Lehr, 2009, Terrest.-breeding Frogs in Peru: 204. Type locality: "Roque, [Departamento San Martin,] Perú". See comment. 

Syrrhophus calcaratus Andersson, 1945, Ark. Zool., 37A(2): 27. Holotype: NHRM 1921, according to Lynch, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 31: 21. Type locality: "Rio Casanga [= Cosanga] near Archidona, 800 m", Ecuador. Secondary homonym of Eleutherodactylus calcaratus Boulenger, 1908. Synonymy by Lynch, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 31: 16.

Syrrhopus calcaratusPeters, 1955, Rev. Ecuat. Entomol. Parsitol., 2: 339.

Eleutherodactylus melini Bokermann, 1958, Herpetologica, 14: 95. Replacement name for Hylodes hylaeformis Melin, 1941, a secondary homonym of Phyllobates hylaeformis Cope, 1875 (= Diasporus hylaeformis), when both are in Pristimantis.

Eleutherodactylus calcaratusMyers, 1962, Copeia, 1962: 196, by implication.

Eleutherodactylus anderssoni Lynch, 1968, Herpetologica, 24: 289–300. Replacement name for Syrrhophus calcaratus Andersson, 1945. Preoccupied by Hylodes calcaratus Boulenger, 1908.

Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) ockendeniLynch, 1996, in Powell and Henderson (eds.), Contr. W. Indian Herpetol.: 154; Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 229.

Pristimantis ockendeniHeinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 10094; Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: Table 2.

Pristimantis (Pristimantis) ockendeniHedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 121.

English Names

Carabaya Robber Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 77).


Known with any confidence from Peru (departments of Cusco, Puno, Ucayali, and Madre de Dios) and Brazil (Acre and Amazonas); records from San Martín, Peru, and Colombia likely assignable to other species as are records from northern Bolivia. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil, Peru

Likely/Controversially Present: Bolivia, Colombia


With the redelimitation of Pristimantis ockendeni by Mônico, Ferrão, Chaparro, Fouquet, and Lima, 2022, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 72: 1035–1065 (who provided an account summarizing comparative morphology, molecular markers, advertisement call, and habitat discussion), by the exclusion of Pristimantis guianensis and a number of unnamed lineages, the older literature of this nominal species should be used with caution. In the Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group. According to Lynch, 1974, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 31: 16, the Panama records of this species probably refer to Eleutherodactylus frater, but Lynch, 1980, Herpetologica, 36: 184, considered the Panama records to apply to Eleutherodactylus taeniatus. Distribution records discussed by Lynch and Lescure, 1980, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 2: 311. Duellman, 1978, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 65: 97–98, provided a brief account and characterization of the call.  Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 60, provided a brief account for the Iquitos region of northeastern Peru as Eleutherodactylus ockendeni. See comment under Eleutherodactylus frater. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) martinicensis series, Eleutherodactylus unistrigatus group according to Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 229. See account by Duellman and Pramuk, 1999, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas, 13: 1–78. De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 58, and Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 69, consider this species possibly to occur in Bolivia. Padial, Gonzales-Álvarez, Reichle, Aguayo-Vedia, and De la Riva, 2004, Graellsia, 60: 170, provided a record for Departmento Pando in northern Amazonian Bolivia. Duellman, 2005, Cusco Amazonico: 270, provided an account (adult morphology, description of the call, life history). França and Venâncio, 2010, Biotemas, 23: 71–84, provided a record for the municipality of Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brazil, with a brief discussion of the range. Bernarde, Machado, and Turci, 2011, Biota Neotrop., 11: 117–144, reported specimens from Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre, Brazil. In the Pristimantis (Pristimantis) frater species group of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 121. Not assignable to a species group according to Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 127. Elmer, Dávila, and Lougheed, 2007, BMC Evol. Biol., 7(247): 1–14, reported on cryptic diversity subsequently yielding new species. Elmer and Cannatella, 2008, Zootaxa, 1784: 11–38, recognized Pristimantis achuar (now a synonymy of Pristmantis luscombei), Pristimantis altamnis, and Pristimantis kichwarum from within the range of nominal Pristimantis ockendeni, noted that it was unlikely that Eleutherodactylus melini is conspecific with the type material of Eleutherodactylus ockendeni (i.e., that nominal Pristimantis ockendeni in Peru is melini and not ockendeni) and noted other ongoing difficulties in the elucidation of the species masquerading under the name Pristimantis "ockendeni". See Duellman and Lehr, 2009, Terrest.-breeding Frogs in Peru: 204–205, for brief account. Silva e Silva, Costa-Campos, and Valentim, 2015, Herpetol. Rev., 46: 58, provided a record from Amapá, Brazil, and noted that the species was otherwise known in that country from Acre and Amazonas.  Ocampo, Aparicio, and Wallace, 2016, Check List, 13(1, 2031): 1–3, provided records for Reserva Nacional Manuripi Heath and Parque Nacional Madidi, Bolivia, and mapped the range of the species sensu lato. Llanqui, Salas, and Oblitas, 2019, Check List, 15: 779, noted a likely unnamed species, similar to this species and geographically nearby, in Bahuaja-Sonene National Park, Puno, Peru. See brief account for the Manu region, Peru, by Villacampa-Ortega, Serrano-Rojas, and Whitworth, 2017, Amph. Manu Learning Cent.: 80–81. Metcalf, Marsh, Torres Pacaya, Graham, and Gunnels, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 753–767, reported the species from the Santa Cruz Forest Reserve, Loreto, northeastern Peru. Taucce, Costa-Campos, Carvalho, and Michalski, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 836: 96–130, reassigned Amapá, Brazil, records of Pristimantis ockendeni (reported by Silva e Silva and Costa-Campos, 2018, ZooKeys, 762: 136) to Pristimantis crepitaculus. Hylodes hylaeformis Melin, 1941, was removed from the synonymy of Pristimantis ockendeni via the implied exclusion by Mônico, Ferrão, Chaparro, Fouquet, and Lima, 2022, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 72: 1035–1065, where it had been placed by Lynch, 1980, Am. Mus. Novit., 2696: 12, on the basis of the descriptions not providing any distinctions from Pristimantis ockendeni. This exclusion suggests that Pristimantis hylaeformis may be a name that applies to an otherwise unnamed lineage from San Martín province, Peru. Similarly, Mônico, Ferrão, Chaparro, Fouquet, and Lima, 2022, Vert. Zool., Senckenberg, 72: 1035–1065, excluded without explanation Syrrhophus calcaratus Andersson, 1945, from the synonymy of Hylodes ockendeni, suggesting that they either thought the name applied to an otherwise unnamed species in Ecuador, or was a synonym of some other Ecuadorian species. Crnobrna, Santa-Cruz Farfan, Gallegos, López-Rojas, Llanqui, Panduro Pisco, and Kelsen Arbaiza, 2023, Check List, 19: 449, provided a record from Ucayali Department, central-eastern Peru. 

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