Beduka koynayensis (Soman, 1963)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Beduka > Species: Beduka koynayensis

Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963, J. Biol. Sci., Bombay, 6: 73. Type(s): Not stated but holotype is ZSIC A1784 according to Chanda, Das, and Dubois, 2001 "2000", Hamadryad, 25: 103. Type locality: "Shivaji Sagar lake at Loyna, in Satara District, Maharashatra . . . . Koyna Valley (Ca. 2000′) situated on the boundary of Satara and Ratnagiri Districts is amongst the hills which overlook the Konkan on the west . . . . The type locality, Humbali Village, is situated on the west of the dam on a rocky crested hill about 2000 feet higher than the dam, total about 4000 feet above mean sea level."

Bufo sulphureus Grandison and Daniel, 1964, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 61: 192. Holotype: BNHM 377, by original designation. Type locality: "approximately 4000 ft. near Humbelevi village Koyna, Satara District, Maharashtra", India. Synonymy by A.G.C. Grandison In Inger, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 61.

"Bufo" koynayensisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363. Excluded from Bufo and unassigned to genus.

Xanthophryne koynayensisBiju, Van Bocxlaer, Giri, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Res. Notes, 2 (241): 3. See comment under Beduka record. 

Beduka koynayensis — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 159. 

English Names

Humbali Village Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

Koyna Toad (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63).

Chrome-yellow Toad (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 24).

Koyna Lateritic Toad (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 2). 


Known only from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra (Anuskura, Dicholi, Doby, Koyna, Ovhali, Sambertek, and Valmiki), India, 900 to 1200 m elevation

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: India

Endemic: India


Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 169, considered this species so distinctive morphologically that they erected a new Bufo koynayensis group. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 48, and Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 24, provided brief accounts. Chanda, Das, and Dubois, 2001 "2000", Hamadryad, 25: 103, briefly discussed location of types. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297, suggested that this species is not a member of the monophyletic taxon Bufo (the former Bufo bufo group), but could not allocate this species to any of the other genera either, instead leaving this species in a non-taxon "Bufo" which they denoted as polyphyletic by placing the name in quotation marks. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted no larval descriptions in the literature (as Bufo kaynayensis). See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo koynayensis) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 186. Records from Amboli, Maharashtra, apparently apply to Xanthophryne tigerinaSubramanian, Dinesh, and Radhakrishnan, 2013, Atlas of Endemic Amph. W. Ghats: 40, provided a very brief characterization, photograph, and dot map. Sreekumar and Dinesh, 2020, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 120: 33–40, discussed the range in Maharashtra, India, in terms of agro-climatic zones. Dinesh, Shabnam, and More, 2023, Russ. J. Herpetol., 30: 49–55, discussed new genetically-confirmed records and the existing literature of the species. 

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