Bufo bankorensis Barbour, 1908

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufo > Species: Bufo bankorensis

Bufo bankorensis Barbour, 1908, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 51: 323. Syntypes: MCZ 2432 (2 specimens), by original designation. Type locality: "Bankoro, Central Formosa", Taiwan, China.

Bufo bufo bankorensisLiu, 1936, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 22: 127; Boring, 1938 "1938–1939", Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 13: 91; by implication of her statement that Bufo bankorensis is "part" of Bufo bufo.

Bufo bankorensisMatsui, 1980, Annot. Zool. Japon., 53: 56.

Bufo japonicus bankorensisNishioka, Sumida, Ueda, and Wu, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 53.

Bufo (Bufo) bankorensisDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

English Names

Central Formosa Toad (Bufo bankorensisFrank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).

Bankor Toad (Bufo bankorensisFei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 132).


Taiwan, 0–2700 m elevation, although generally absent from the western coastal plain. See comment. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Taiwan

Endemic: Taiwan


A allopatric fragment of the Bufo gargarizans complex and variably considered distinct or a synonym or subspecies of that species. Retained here due to the lack of agreement among recent workers. 

In the Bufo bufo group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. See account (as Bufo bankorensis) by Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 457. Revived tentatively from synonymy of Bufo bufo by Matsui, 1980, Annot. Zool. Japon., 53: 56, Matsui, 1986, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 5 (1): 48, and Matsui, 1986, Copeia, 1986: 561-579, where it had been placed by Boring, 1938 "1938–1939", Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 13: 91, and Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 118 (under Bufo bufo gargarizans). Nishioka, Sumida, Ueda, and Wu, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 53–91, considered bankorensis to be one of three subspecies (the others being Bufo japonicus gargarizans, Bufo japonicus miyakonis) that differed electrophoretically significantly between each other and the remaining populations of Bufo japonicus. This phylogenetic arrangement was supported by mtDNA studes of Igawa, Kurabayashi, Nishioka, and Sumida, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 38: 250–260, and they regarded Bufo bankorensis (of Taiwan), Bufo gargarizans (of mainland China) as distinct species. Liu, Lathrop, Fu, Yang, and Murphy, 2000, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 14: 433, suggested tha Bufo bankorensis was not distinct from Bufo gargarizans, although their data did not support the analytic "monophyly" of Bufo gargarizansFei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 132-133, provided a brief account (as Bufo bankorensis), figure, and map. Lue, Tu, and Hsiang, 1999, Atlas Taiwan Amph. Rept.: 28–29, provided a brief account (as Bufo bankorensis). Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 518–522, provided an account (as Bufo bankorensis) and a spot map. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 221, provided a brief account (as Bufo bankorensis) including photographs. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 253, provided an account (as Bufo bankorensis) photographs, and a range map. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 746–748, provided an account (as Bufo bankorensis), photograph, and dot map. Guo, Yang, and Li, 2009, Colored Illust. Amph. Rept. Taiwan: 60–61, provided a brief account (as Bufo bankorensis), photographs, and map. Dufresnes and Litvinchuk, 2022, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 195: 700, considered Bufo bankorensis to be junior synonym of Bufo gargarizans on the basis of low genetic divergence. 

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