Bufo verrucosissimus (Pallas, 1814)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufo > Species: Bufo verrucosissimus

Rana verrucosissimus Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 15. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Kaukasus.

Bufo colchicus Eichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 167. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "in Colchide" (= Cochis at the Black Sea shore of the Caucasus). Synonymy with Bufo bufo sensu lato by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 125 (as Bufo vulgaris); Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 569; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303. Synonymy with Bufo verrucosissimus by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 239.

Bufo caucasicusMénétriés, 1832, Cat. Raisonne Objets Zool. Voy. Caucase et Perse: 74.

Bufo cinereus var. colchicaEichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 160.

Bufo bufo turowi Krasovsky, 1933, Izvestia Vtorogo Severo-Kavkazkogo Pedagogicheskogo Institute, Vladikavkaz, 10: 90-91. Holotype: ZMM, lost according to Dunayev and Orlova, 1994, Russ. J. Herpetol., 1: 63, although 3 paratypes remain in the ZMM. Type locality: Chernorechenskii dordon of Caucasus reserve (Krasnodar region, Russia); near falling of Urushten river into M. Laba. Synonymy by Orlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 13-24. Distinctiveness of this nominal taxon rejected by Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 38.

Bufo bufo verrucosissimaTerentjev and Chernov, 1936, Brief Guide Amph. Rept. USSR: 24; Tuniyev and Beregovaya, 1987 "1986", in Anajeva and Borkin (eds.), Sistematika i ekologiia amfibii i reptilii: 136; Tuniyev and Beregovaya, 1987 "1986", in Anajeva and Borkin (eds.), Sistematika i ekologiia amfibii i reptilii: 136.

Bufo verrucosissimus verrucosissimusOrlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 15.

Bufo verrucosissimus turowiOrlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 16.

Bufo verrucosissimus circassicus Orlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 20. Holotype: ZMM A-2267, by original designation. Type locality: Stanistsa Krepostnaya, Krasnodar region, Russia, 40 km from Krasnodar. Distinctiveness of this nominal taxon rejected by Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 38.

Bufo verrucosissimus turoviDunayev and Orlova, 1994, Russ. J. Herpetol., 1: 63. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimus verrucosissimusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimus circassicusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimus turowiDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

English Names

Caucasus Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).

Caucasian Common Toad (Tuniyev, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 3: 51).

Caucasian Toad (Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 238; Tarkhnishvili and Gokhelashvili, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 4: v).

Distribution

Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and into northeastern Turkey (Artvin Province); southern coastal region of Turkey from eastern Antalya Province in isolated populations into western coastal Syria and Lebanon.

Comment

Borkin, 1987, Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Leningrad, 158: 47-58, first suggested that Bufo verrucosissimus is a distinct species from Bufo bufo, but he did not make the change. See Orlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 13-24, for subspecies and taxonomic discussion. See Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 238–245, who noted that Bufo verrucosissimus verrucosissimus and Bufo verrucosissimus circassicus met in a narrow hybrid zone. Kuzmin, 2013, Amph. Former Soviet Union, Ed. 2: 139–143, provided an account for the former USSR. Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 19–43, rejected subspecies. Tosunoglu and Taskavak, 2001, Ital. J. Zool., 68: 165-168, considered specimens from Turkey as Bufo bufo verrucosissimus and not distinguishable immunologically from Bufo bufo spinosus. Tuniyev, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 3: 51-52, discussed the taxonomic history of this species as well as geographic variation. Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 128-130, provided an account (as Bufo bufo verrucosissima) for Iran. See comments under Bufo bufo. Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 19–43, redelimited that species range by including western Turkish populations formerly referred to Bufo bufo spinosus (now assigned to Bufo bufo). Arntzen, Recuero, Canestrelli, and Martínez-Solano, 2013, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 69: 1203–1208, discussed the phylogenetics and species taxonomy of this and near relatives and conclused that Bufo verrucosissimus is a distinct species. See comments under Bufo bufo and Bufo spinosus for additional relevant comments. Nöllert, Grosse, Buschendorf, and Geiger, 2016, Mertensiella, 24: 7–32, summarized and discussed the taxonomic history of this species and its recognition within the Bufo bufo group and provided a range map. On the basis of mtDNA analysis, Jablonski and Sadek, 2019, Herpetozoa, Wien, 32: 255–258, assigned the populations of Syria and Lebanon to this species. See Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 75, for brief summary of identifying morphology and biology, a range map, as well as a photograph. See Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 75, for brief summary of identifying morphology and biology, a range map (seemingly excluding the northern and southern coasts of Turkey as well as Lebanon and Syria), as well as a photograph. Özdemir, Dursun, Üzüm, Kutrup, and Gül, 2020, Amphibia-Reptilia, 41: 399–411, reported on distribution within Turkey on the basis of mt and nu DNA markers as well as morphology. 

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