Duttaphrynus parietalis (Boulenger, 1882)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Duttaphrynus > Species: Duttaphrynus parietalis

Bufo parietalis Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 312, pl. 21, fig. 2. Syntypes: BMNH 1874.4.9.1156-57, 1882.2.10.60; BMNH 1882.2.10.60, designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 153. Type locality: "Malabar", India. Biju, 2001, Occas. Publ. Indian Soc. Conserv. Biol., 1: 8, noted the imprecision of this type locality, which could be anywhere within the entire region of the Western Ghats.

"Bufo" parietalisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Duttaphrynus parietalisVan Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 4.

English Names

Indian Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Ridged Toad (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63).

Timber Forest Toad (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 26).

Ridged True Toad (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 2). 


Western Ghats of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, in evergreen forests at 200-900 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: India

Endemic: India


In the Bufo melanostictus group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. See Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 434, Inger, Shaffer, Koshy, and Bakde, 1984, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 81: 408-409, and Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 153, who placed it in the Bufo scaber group. Biju, 2001, Occas. Publ. Indian Soc. Conserv. Biol., 1: 8, noted the highly provisional nature of range statements. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 50-51, and Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 26-27, provided a brief account for the Indian population. Krishna and Krishna, 2001, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 98: 456-457, reported the species in Karnataka. Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 108-110, provided an account. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo parietalis) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 611. Ganesh and Asokan, 2010, Hamadryad, 35: 48, noted some misidentifications in the literature. Sivaprasad, 2013, Common Amph. Kerala: 28–29, provided a brief account, photograph, and dot map for Kerala. Sreekumar and Dinesh, 2020, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 120: 33–40, noted that the species does not extend as far north as the state of Maharashtra, India.  

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