Duttaphrynus Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Duttaphrynus
28 species

Duttaphrynus Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 219. Type species: Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799, by original designation.

Firouzophrynus Safaei-Mahroo and Ghaffari, 2020, Compl. Guide Amph. Iran: 19. Type species: Bufo olivaceus Blanford, 1874. Type species noted in Farsi section of book. Provisional synonymy by Bisht, Garg, Sarmah, Sengupta, and Biju, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 465. 

English Names

Dutta's Toads (Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 766). .  

Distribution

Northern Pakistan and Nepal to southern and northeastern India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka; to southwestern and southern China (including Taiwan and Hainan) through Indochina to Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali; Afghanistan through Iran to Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. 

Comment

Duttaphyrynus provisionally contains the Bufo melanostictus and Bufo scaber groups of previous authors (the Bufo stomaticus group now Firouzophrynus). Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 113-126, discussed (as Bufo) the Chinese species. Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 145-162, provided a key and accounts for the species (under Bufo) of Nepal. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 129, suggested that Duttaphrynus is only distantly related to other Asiatic bufonids. Smith and Chiszar, 2006, Herpetol. Conserv. Biol., 1: 6-8, implied that this taxon should be considered a subgenus of Bufo; see comment under Bufonidae. Matsui, Yambun Imbun, and Sudin, 2007, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 24: 1159-1166, provided evidence that Duttaphrynus is most closely related to other taxa, particularly Pelophryne with a more distant relationship to Didynamipus, Ingerophrynus, Leptophryne, and Sabahphrynus. Chaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 203-212, placed Duttaphrynus as the sister taxon of Schismaderma. Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 72-83, provided evidence that Duttaphrynus is in a clade containing Schismaderma and Phrynoidis (having not studied Pelophryne). Van Bocxlaer, Loader, Roelants, Biju, Menegon, and Bossuyt, 2010, Science, 327: 679-682, suggested Duttaphrynus to form the sister taxon of Xanthophryne. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences, suggested that Duttaphrynus is paraphyletic with respect to Xanthophryne (although this is obscured by their explicit adoption of an out-dated and non-monophyletic taxonomy), its placement as the sister taxon of Bufotes (excluding "Bufo" raddei and "Bufo" brongersmai, sometimes included in that genus), and provided a tree of exemplar species. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 766–777, provided accounts, photographs, and dot maps for the species of ChinaPratihar, Bhattacharya, and Deuti, 2016, MtDNA, Part A, 27: 2881-2882, reported on a 2-locus tree of Duttaphrynus from India. Zhang, 2017, Amph. Rept. Fanjing Mts.: 94–97, provided taxonomic and natural history information for the Fanjing Mountains population in northeastern Guizhou, China. Roy, Begum, and Ahmed, 2019, J. Threatened Taxa, 10: 12943, reported an unidentified, possibly new or, from the photograph, Duttaphrynus himalayanus, from Mipi and Anini, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. The recognition of Firouzophrynus appears to render Duttaphrynus paraphyletic, at least as suggested by the trees provided by Van Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 1–10, and Portik and Papenfuss, 2015, BMC Evol. Biol., 15 (152): 9. Nevertheless, the name is available for the Duttaphrynus stomaticus group, which appears to the be the sister taxon of remaining Duttaphrynus (DRF). Bisht, Garg, Sarmah, Sengupta, and Biju, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 451–470, discussed the recognition of Firouzophrynus for the Duttaphrynus stomaticus group and noted species which may be included in that group but are known insufficiently. For this reason they provisionally considered Firouzophrynus a synonym of Duttaphrynus; they also discussed the molecular phylogenetics of the species of Duttaphrynus writ large. 

Contained taxa (28 sp.):

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