Duttaphrynus stomaticus (Lütken, 1864)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Duttaphrynus > Species: Duttaphrynus stomaticus

Bufo stomaticus Lütken, 1864 "1863", Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., Ser. 2, 4: 305. Syntypes: ZMUC (6 specimens), by original designation. Type locality: "ostindiske" (= East Indies); restricted to "Assam", India, by Boulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 7: 279-283.

Bufo andersonii Boulenger, 1883, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 12: 163. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.20.47, 1947.2.20.50-53, ZSIC, and "in the Indian division at the Fisheries Exhibition"; Parker, 1938, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 11, 1: 491, designated as lectosyntypes the Rajputana (Ajmere) types (in the BMNH). BMNH designated lectotype by Balletto, Cherchi, and Gasperetti, 1985, Fauna Saudi Arabia, 7: 341 (fide Anonymous, 1987, Zool. Rec., 123: 189). Type localities: "Agra district" (ZSIC specimens), "Ajmere" (the 3 BMNH specimens), and "Tatta" (Fisheries Exhibition), India; restricted to Ajmere, Rajputana, India by Parker, 1938, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 11, 1: 491, by restricting the name to the lectosyntypes from Rajputana. Synonymy by Annandale, 1909, Rec. Indian Mus., 3: 284; Mertens, 1969, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., 197: 4, and Schmidtler and Schmidtler, 1969, Salamandra, 5: 122. Parker, 1938, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 11, 1: 491, suggested that the syntypes represented two species. See discussion by Balletto, Cherchi, and Gasperetti, 1985, Fauna Saudi Arabia, 7: 352.

Bufo Andersonii Murray, 1884, Vert. Zool. Sind: 401. Types: Karachi Museum, presumed lost. Type locality: "Sind (Tatta (ponds) and Joongshai)", Pakistan. Synonymy (with Bufo andersonii [= Bufo stomaticus] by Boulenger, 1885, Zool. Rec., 21: 17.

Bufo stomaticus stomaticusRao, 1920, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 27: 126.

"Bufo" stomaticusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364. Excluded from Bufo and unassigned to genus.

Duttaphrynus stomaticusVan Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 4.

English Names

Indus Toad (Bufo andersoni [no longer recognized]: Minton, 1966, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 134: 55).

Indus Valley Toad (Bufo stomaticus: Khan, 2002, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 37: 159).

Marbled Toad (Bufo stomaticus: Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 433; Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63; Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 78; Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 26; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 21).

Assam Toad (Bufo stomaticus: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Indo-Gangetic (Marbled) Toad (Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 130).


Eastern Iran (Sistan Va Baluchestan, South Khorasan, and North Khorasan provinces) and southern Afghanistan to Sind, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Odisha areas of India and Pakistan and east to Nepal, Sikkim, Bangladesh, and to Orissa and the Assam region, India.


In the Bufo stomaticus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 64, and Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. See comment under Bufo stuarti. See Kirtisinghe, 1957, Amph. Ceylon: 17-19, Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1996, Amph. Fauna Sri Lanka: 73, and Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 433-434. See taxonomic discussions by Eiselt and Schmidtler, 1973, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 77: 186, and Dubois, 1974, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, Zool., 213: 341-411. Record for Orissa by Dutta, 1988, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 85: 439-441. Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda, 1998, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 3: 245 (following the suggestion of Kirtisinghe, 1957, Amph. Ceylon: 8), rejected the Sri Lankan records as based on an introduced individual. See Auffenberg and Rehman, 1997, in Mufti et al. (eds.), Biodiversity of Pakistan: 351-372, for discussion of systematics and geographic variation. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 28. Ray, 1999, Mem. Zool. Surv. India, 18: 64-67, provided an account. Choudhury, Ahmed, and Sengupta, 2001, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 98: 457-459, reported on geographic distribution in the Assam region. Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 158-162, provided an extensive account for Nepalese population. See brief account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 96. Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 130-132, provided an account for Iran. Khan, 2005, Bonnoprani-Bangladesh Wildl. Bull., 2: 2–3, provided a brief account for Pakistan. Khan, 2006, Amph. Rept. Pakistan: 49, provided a brief account for Pakistan. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317-324, provided a record for Manipur, northeastern India. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted several larval descriptions in the literature of various stages of completeness (as Bufo stomaticus). Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 26, provided a brief account for northeastern India. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 21-22, provided a brief characterization and photographs. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 35, for brief account for Nepal.  Das, Chetia, Dutta, and Sengupta, 2013, Zootaxa, 3646: 336–348, compared this species with other Duttaphrynus from northeastern India. Srinivasulu, Ganesh, and Srinivasulu, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4784–4790, discussed misidentifications that purported to place this species in South India. Masroor, 2012, Contr. Herpetol. N. Pakistan: 46–49, provided an account for northern Pakistan. Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 257–290, reported on distribution and conservation status in Iran. Chettri, 2017, Das (ed.), Diversity Ecol. Amph. India: 89–104, discussed the species in Sikkim, India. Deuti, Sethy, and Ray, 2014, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 114: 122–123, provided a  brief account for the population of the Odisha region,  India. Sreekumar and Dinesh, 2020, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 120: 33–40, discussed the range in Maharashtra, India, in terms of agro-climatic zones. 

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