Firouzophrynus hololius (Günther, 1876)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Firouzophrynus > Species: Firouzophrynus hololius

Bufo hololius Günther, 1876 "1875", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1875: 569. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.20.50 (formerly 1874.4.29.1297), according to A.G.C. Grandison in Inger, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 48. Type locality: "Malabar", India. Biju, 2001, Occas. Publ. Indian Soc. Conserv. Biol., 1: 8, noted the imprecision of this type locality, which could be anywhere within the entire region of the Western Ghats.

"Bufo" hololiusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364. Excluded from Bufo and unassigned to genus.

Duttaphrynus hololiusVan Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 4.

Firouzophrynus hololius — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 447. 

English Names

Malabar Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

Günther's Toad (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63).

Günther's True Toad (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 2). 


Central and northern Andhra Pradesh and central Telangana south to northeastern Tamil Nadu, eastern Kerala, Hyderabad, and southeastern Karnataka, South India. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: India

Endemic: India


See Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 432, Pillai and Ravichandran, 1991, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 88: 11–14, and Radhakrishnan and Ravichandran, 1999, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 97: 203–204, for accounts. Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 169, provisionally allocated this species to the Bufo stomaticus group. Biju, 2001, Occas. Publ. Indian Soc. Conserv. Biol., 1: 8, discussed the highly provisional nature of published ranges for this species, which he regarded to be known only from the holotype from a highly imprecise type locality. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 46, and Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 23–24, provided brief accounts. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted no larval descriptions in the literature (as Bufo hololius). Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 4, regarded the range to include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. Chandramouli, Ganesh, and Baskaran, 2011, Herpetol. Notes, 4: 271–274, reported on color-in-life, morphology, and prelimary ecological observations. Ganesh, Kalaimani, Nath, and Kumar, 2013, Herpetotropicos, Mérida, 9: 5–8, reported on larval morphology. Srinivasulu, Ganesh, and Srinivasulu, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4784–4790, provided new records, provided a spot map, and commented on earlier misidentifications. Chandramouli and Kalaimani, 2014, Alytes, 31: 3–12, reported on larval morphology. Ganesh, Brihadeesh, Narayana, Hussain, and Kumar, 2020, Asian J. Conserv. Biol., 9: 71–78, discussed morphology, range, call, and breeding behavior. Srinivasulu and Kumar, 2022, J. Threatened Taxa, 14: 21268, reported the species from the state of Telangana, south-central India. Narayanan, Bhat, Paran, and Aravind, 2022, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 41: 215–229, discussed the location of the type locality, provided new records, and provided distribution modelling predictions. 

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