Firouzophrynus stomaticus (Lütken, 1864)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Firouzophrynus > Species: Firouzophrynus stomaticus

Bufo stomaticus Lütken, 1864 "1863", Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., Ser. 2, 4: 305. Syntypes: ZMUC (6 specimens), by original designation. BMNH 1891.6.17.3 considered a possible syntype according to museum records. Type locality: "ostindiske" (= East Indies); "not known, but they are believed to be from Assam [India]; they are perhaps from Bengal [now West Bengal, India, and West Bengal, Bangladesh] . . . Five specimens . . . Adult male and female (the types) believed to be from Assam [India]; two young from Calcutta; and one young from Hughly [Hooghly, West Bengal]" according to Boulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 7: 462–463. Bohra and Purkayastha, 2020, Reptiles & Amphibians, 27: 430–431, discussed the ambiguity surrounding the type locality and suggested it likely to be in West Bengal, India. 

Bufo andersonii Boulenger, 1883, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 12: 163. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.20.47, 1947.2.20.52–53, 1883.11.26.105-106, ZSIC, and "in the Indian division at the Fisheries Exhibition"; Parker, 1938, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 11, 1: 491, designated as lectosyntypes the Rajputana (Ajmere) types (in the BMNH). BMNH 1883.11.26.105 designated lectotype by Balletto, Cherchi, and Gasperetti, 1985, Fauna Saudi Arabia, 7: 341 (fide Anonymous, 1987, Zool. Rec., 123: 189). Type localities: "Agra district" (ZSIC specimens), "Ajmere" (the 3 BMNH specimens), and "Tatta" (Fisheries Exhibition), India; restricted to Ajmere, Rajputana, India by Parker, 1938, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 11, 1: 491, by restricting the name to the lectosyntypes from Rajputana. Synonymy by Annandale, 1909, Rec. Indian Mus., 3: 284; Mertens, 1969, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., 197: 4, and Schmidtler and Schmidtler, 1969, Salamandra, 5: 122. Parker, 1938, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 11, 1: 491, suggested that the syntypes represented two species. See discussion by Balletto, Cherchi, and Gasperetti, 1985, Fauna Saudi Arabia, 7: 352.

Bufo Andersonii Murray, 1884, Vert. Zool. Sind: 401. Types: Karachi Museum, presumed lost. Type locality: "Sind (Tatta (ponds) and Joongshai)", Pakistan. Synonymy (with Bufo andersonii [= Bufo stomaticus] by Boulenger, 1885, Zool. Rec., 21: 17.

Bufo stomaticus stomaticusRao, 1920, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 27: 126.

"Bufo" stomaticusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364. Excluded from Bufo and unassigned to genus.

Duttaphrynus stomaticusVan Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 4.

Firouzophrynus stomaticus — Safaei-Mahroo and Ghaffari, 2020, Compl. Guide Amph. Iran: 20; Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 447. 

English Names

Indus Toad (Bufo andersoni [no longer recognized]: Minton, 1966, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 134: 55).

Indus Valley Toad (Bufo stomaticus: Khan, 2002, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 37: 159).

Marbled Toad (Bufo stomaticus: Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 433; Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 63; Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 78; Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 26; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 21).

Assam Toad (Bufo stomaticus: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Indo-Gangetic (Marbled) Toad (Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 130).

Firouz's Marbled Toad (Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, and Niamir, 2023, Zootaxa, 5279: 21).

Marbled True Toad (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 3). 


Hamoon Lake floodplain of easternmost Iran and southern Afghanistan to Sind, Maharashtra, Gujurat, northern Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and West Bengal areas of India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan and east to Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan (photograph only), central and southern Bangladesh, and to the Assam region, India; Sri Lanka record requires confirmation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan

Likely/Controversially Present: Sri Lanka


In the Bufo stomaticus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 64, and Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. See comment under Bufo stuarti. See Kirtisinghe, 1957, Amph. Ceylon: 17–19, Dutta and Manamendra-Arachchi, 1996, Amph. Fauna Sri Lanka: 73, and Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 433–434. Larval development described (as Bufo andersonii) by Bhati, 1969, Agra Univ. J. Res., Sci., 18: 1–14. See taxonomic discussions by Eiselt and Schmidtler, 1973, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 77: 186, and Dubois, 1974, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, Zool., 213: 341–411. Record for Orissa by Dutta, 1988, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 85: 439–441. Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda, 1998, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 3: 245 (following the suggestion of Kirtisinghe, 1957, Amph. Ceylon: 8), rejected the Sri Lankan records as based on an introduced individual. See Auffenberg and Rehman, 1997, in Mufti et al. (eds.), Biodiversity of Pakistan: 351–372, for discussion of systematics and geographic variation. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 28. Ray, 1999, Mem. Zool. Surv. India, 18: 64–67, provided an account. Choudhury, Ahmed, and Sengupta, 2001, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 98: 457–459, reported on geographic distribution in the Assam region. Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 158–162, provided an extensive account for Nepalese population. See brief account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 96. Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 130–132, provided an account for Iran. Khan, 2005, Bonnoprani-Bangladesh Wildl. Bull., 2: 2–3, provided a brief account for Pakistan. Khan, 2006, Amph. Rept. Pakistan: 49, provided a brief account for Pakistan. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317–324, provided a record for Manipur, northeastern India. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted several larval descriptions in the literature of various stages of completeness (as Bufo stomaticus). Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 26, provided a brief account for northeastern India. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 21–22, provided a brief characterization and photographs. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 35, for brief account for Nepal.  Das, Chetia, Dutta, and Sengupta, 2013, Zootaxa, 3646: 336–348, compared this species with other Duttaphrynus from northeastern India. Srinivasulu, Ganesh, and Srinivasulu, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4784–4790, discussed misidentifications that purported to place this species in South India. Masroor, 2012, Contr. Herpetol. N. Pakistan: 46–49, provided an account for northern Pakistan. Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 257–290, reported on distribution and conservation status in Iran. See localities and range map for Afghanistan by Wagner, Bauer, Leviton, Wilms, and Böhme, 2016, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 63: 457–565. Chettri, 2017, Das (ed.), Diversity Ecol. Amph. India: 89–104, discussed the species in Sikkim, India. Deuti, Sethy, and Ray, 2014, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 114: 122–123, provided a  brief account for the population of the Odisha region,  India. Sreekumar and Dinesh, 2020, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 120: 33–40, discussed the range in Maharashtra, India, in terms of agro-climatic zones. Ganesh, Rameshwaran, Joseph, Jerith, and Dutta, 2020, J. Threatened Taxa, 12: 16272–16278, reported on specimens and briefly on their habitat on the Coromandel coastal plains of northern Tamil Nadu, India. Prasad, Gautam, Gupta, Murthy, Ramesh, Shinde, and Das, 2020, Zootaxa, 4851: 450–476, reported on morphology and advertisement call for a population in the Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, central India. Key to the species, synonymy, distribution (including map), and access to literature provided by Safaei-Mahroo and Ghaffari, 2020, Compl. Guide Amph. Iran: 1–331. Wangyal, Bower, Sherub, Tshewang, Wangdi, Rinchen, Puntsho, Tashi, Koirala, Bhandari, Phuntsho, Koirala, Ghalley, Chaida, Tenzin, Powrel, Tshewang, Raika, Jamtsho, Kinley, Gyeltshen, Tashi, Nidup, Wangdi, Phuentsho, Norbu, Wangdi, Wangchuk, Tobgay, Dorji, and Das, 2020, Herpetol. Rev., 51: 793,  identified a photograph of this species from Samdrup Jongkar District, Bhutan. Gayen, Dey, and Roy, 2021, Zoos' Print J., 36: 33–39, reported a record from Durgapur Subdivision, West Bengal, India. Bisht, Garg, Sarmah, Sengupta, and Biju, 2021, Zoosyst. Evol., Berlin, 97: 451_470, suggested on the basis of genetic distance of 16S mtDNA that Duttaphrynus stomaticus is likely conspecific with Duttaphrynus olivaceusAhmad and Mim, 2020, IRCF Rept. & Amph., 27: 36–41, reported specimens from the Bandarban District, southeastern Bangladesh. Akram, Rais, López-Hervas, Tarvin, Saeed, Bolnick, and Cannatella, 2021, Ecol. Evol., 11: 14175–14216, provided genetically-confirmed records from Rawalpindi District, Punjab Province, Pakistan, as well as briefly discussing the systematics of the species. Rais, Ahmed, Sajjad, Akram, Saeed, Hamid, and Abid, 2021, ZooKeys, 1062: 157–175, included this species in an identification key to the amphibian species of Pakistan as well as providing a photograph. Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, and Niamir, 2023, Zootaxa, 5279: 1–112, provided for Iran an identification key including this species (and subspecies), photographs, habitat, conservation threats and Red List recommendation, a review of the literature, as well as dot and modeled distribution maps. Reported from western and central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan by Majid, Azim, Nawaz, and Ud Din, 2023, Asian J. Res. Zool., 6: 56. Ali, Bukhari, Ayub, Qadir, Hussain, Masood, Akhtar, Alam, Nawaz, and Javid, 2024, J. Wildl. Biodivers., Arak, 8: 389–402, provided genetically-confirmed records from Punjab, Pakistan. 

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