Incilius cavifrons (Firschein, 1950)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius cavifrons

Bufo cavifrons Firschein, 1950, Copeia, 1950: 84. Holotype: UIMNH 8741, by original designation. Type locality: "500 feet below peak of Volcán San Martín, San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz", Mexico.

Cranopsis cavifronsFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Ollotis cavifronsFrost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Incilius cavifronsFrost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418-419, by implication.

English Names

Mountain Toad (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 16; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 18).


Sierra de los Tuxtlas region, Veracruz, Mexico, 200-1600 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Mexico

Endemic: Mexico


In the former Bufo valliceps group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 49. See accounts by Porter, 1964 "1963", Herpetologica, 19: 229-247, Mendelson, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 279-281, and Mendelson, 1998, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 645: 1-2, who corrected many misidentifications imbedded in the literature. Korky and Webb, 1973, J. Herpetol., 7: 47-49, reported on larval morphology. See map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo cavifrons) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 181. Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1-34, suggested that this species is a member of a monophyletic Incilius valliceps group and in a subgroup they referred to as the Forest Group (the name Incilius cristatus subgroup is available—DRF) that includes Incilius aucoinae, Incilius cavifrons, Incilius campbelli, Incilius cristatus, Incilius leucomoyos, Incilius macrocristatus, Incilius melanochlorus, Incilius spiculatus, and Incilius tutelariusOliver-López, Woolrich-Piña, and Lemos-Espinal, 2009, Fam. Bufonidae Mex.: 64–66, provided an account (as Ollotis cavifrons).

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