Incilius coccifer (Cope, 1866)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius coccifer

Bufo coccifer Cope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 18: 130. Holotype: USNM 6490 according to Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 41, and Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 32. Type locality: "Arriba [= roughly the Meseta Central], Costa Rica". Type locality commented upon by Dunn and Stuart, 1951, Copeia, 1951: 57, and Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 77.

Bufo valliceps var. microtis Werner, 1896, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 46: 351. Offprint pagination is page 8. Holotype: "Petersburger Museum" (= ZISP); transferred to Berlin and now ZMB 13200 according to Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 70. Type locality: "Honduras". Synonymy by Mendelson, 2001, Mesoam. Herpetol.: 15.

Bufo microtisSchmidt and Stuart, 1941, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 24: 233-247.

Cranopsis cocciferFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Ollotis cocciferFrost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Incilius cocciferFrost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418-419, by implication.

English Names

Southern Roundgland Toad (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 16; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Southern Round-gland Toad (Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 18).

Dry Forest Toad (Moya-Valverde and Leiva-Méndez, 2023, Reptiles & Amphibians, 30(e20361): 1). 


Pacific Coast of Oaxaca in the Tehantepec region; extreme southern Chiapas (Mexico) along the Pacific versant through El Salvador, southern Honduras and western Nicaragua to northwestern Costa Rica; interior valleys of Honduras and from the Atlantic coastal regions of Honduras and Nicaragua, sea level to 2080 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua


In the former Bufo coccifer group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 49. See account by Porter, 1964 "1963", Herpetologica, 19: 229-247. See comment under Bufo ibarrai. Stuart, 1963, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 122: 25, doubted that the Mexican and Central American populations were conspecific; various populations were subsequently named as distinct species: Incilius cycladen, Incilius porteri, Incilius ibarrai, Incilius pisinnas, and Incilius signifer. See account by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 203-207, who regarded the Bufo coccifer group to be part of the Bufo valliceps group and considered Bufo cycladen a synonym of Bufo coccifer following comments by Blair, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 93–101, and McDiarmid and Foster, 1981, Southwest. Nat., 26: 353–367. McCranie and Wilson, 2002, Amph. Honduras: 171–177, provided an account. Lips and Savage, 1996, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 109: 17–26, included this species (as Bufo coccifer) in a key to the tadpoles found in Costa Rica. Mendelson, 2001, Mesoam. Herpetol.: 10-19, provided taxonomic comments. Mendelson, Williams, Sheil, and Mulcahy, 2005, Sci. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas, 38: 7–11, provided an account, discussion of confusion with other species, and revision. Köhler, Veselý, and Greenbaum, 2005 "2006", Amph. Rept. El Salvador: 27–29, provided an account (as Bufo coccifer, and for El Salvador) and a color photograph. McCranie, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 38, summarized the departmental distribution in Honduras. Lovich, Akre, Ryan, Nunez, Ford, Cruz-Díaz, Borjas, Scott, Flores, Del Cid, Flores, Rodriguez, and Luque-Montes, 2010, Herpetol. Rev., 41: 112–116, provided a new record in Honduras, and commented on the range. Travers, Townsend, Sunyer, Obando, Wilson, and Nickerson, 2011, Herpetol. Rev., 42: 399, noted a new locality in Nicaragua (Jinotega). Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1–34, suggested that this species is a member of a monophyletic Incilius coccifer group that includes Incilius coccifer, Incilius cycladen, Incilius ibarrai, Incilius pisinnus, Incilius porteri, and Incilius signifer. Oliver-López, Woolrich-Piña, and Lemos-Espinal, 2009, Fam. Bufonidae Mex.: 66–69, provided an account for Mexico. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 104–115, compared this species to others in Central America and provided a range map and photograph. Firneno and Townsend, 2019, Zool. Scripta, 48: 454–465, reported on genetics, range, and relationship to Incilius porteri and Incilius ibarraiFirneno, O'Neill, Portik, Emery, Townsend, and Fujita, 2020, Mol. Ecol., 29: 3543–3559, discussed incomplete lineage sorting and mtDNA/nuDNA discordance in the Incilius coccifer complex (Incilius coccifer, Incilius porteri, and Incilius ibarrai). See also Streicher and Day, 2020, Mol. Ecol., 29: 3400–3402, who commented on that paper and the issues it raised. Moya-Valverde and Leiva-Méndez, 2023, Reptiles & Amphibians, 30(e20361): 1, provided a maximum elevational range in Costa Rica as 1572 m.  

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