Incilius cristatus (Wiegmann, 1833)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius cristatus

Bufo cristatus Wiegmann, 1833, Isis von Oken, 26: 660. Syntypes: ZMB 3523-24, according to Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 81; ZMB 3524 designated lectotype by Firschein, 1950, Copeia, 1950: 83. Type locality: "Umbegung von Xalapa", Veracruz, Mexico.

Bufo occipitalis Camerano, 1879, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat., 14: 889. Holotype: MZUT An464, according to Gavetti and Andreone, 1993, Cat. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat., Torino, 10: 52. Type locality: "Messico" = Mexico. Restricted to "Jalapa", Veracruz, Mexico by Smith and Taylor, 1950, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 33: 348. Synonymy by Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 48.

Cranopsis cristataFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Ollotis cristataFrost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Incilius cristatusFrost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418-419, by implication.

English Names

Large-crested Toad (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 17; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 18).


Central-western Veracruz and adjacent Puebla, Mexico, in cloud forest at 1300–1400 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Mexico

Endemic: Mexico


In the former Bufo valliceps group. Reviewed by Porter, 1964 "1963", Herpetologica, 19: 229–247. See accounts by Mendelson, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 281-284, and Mendelson, 1998, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 646: 1–2, who corrected several misidentifications. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo cristatus) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 182. Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1–34, suggested that this species is a member of a monophyletic Incilius valliceps group and in a subgroup they referred to as the Forest Group (the name Incilius cristatus subgroup is available—DRF) that includes Incilius aucoinae, Incilius cavifrons, Incilius campbelli, Incilius cristatus, Incilius leucomoyos, Incilius macrocristatus, Incilius melanochlorus, Incilius spiculatus, and Incilius tutelariusOliver-López, Woolrich-Piña, and Lemos-Espinal, 2009, Fam. Bufonidae Mex.: 70–72, provided an account for Mexico (as Ollotis cristata). Oropeza-Sánchez, Pineda-Arredondo, and Luría-Manzano, 2018, Herpetol. Conserv. Biol., 13: 558–568, reportd on range, habitat, conservation status and life history. 

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