Incilius epioticus (Cope, 1875)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius epioticus

Crepidius epioticus Cope, 1875 "1876", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 8: 97. Holotype: USNM, not located. Type locality: "from 5000 feet elevation on Pico Blanco [= Cerro Kámuk, Cantón de Talamanca, Provincia Limón]", Costa Rica; in error for Cerro Utyum, according to Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 110. See discussion of type locality by Arias and Chaves, 2014, Mesoam. Herpetol., 1: 176–180, who concluded that the type locality is actually "Near Cerro Pat, elev. 1,520 m", Provincia de Limón, Costa Rica.

Bufo epioticusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 326.

Crepidophryne epioticaCope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 260.

Nannophryne epioticaGünther, 1901, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Vol. 7, Part 164: 257.

Incilius epioticusMendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 19.

English Names

Cerro Utyum Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).


Scattered localities on the Atlantic versant of the Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica and Panama, 1051–2040 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Costa Rica, Panama


Vaughan and Mendelson, 2007, Copeia, 2007: 305-308, discussed the ecology and systematics of this species. Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1-34, suggested that this species is a member of a monophyletic Incilius coniferus group that includes Incilius coniferus, Incilius chompipe, Incilius epioticus, Incilius fastidiosus, Incilius guanacastes, Incilius holdridgei, Incilius karenlipsae, Incilius periglenes, and Incilius peripatetes. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 104-115, compared this species to others (as Crepidophryne and Incilius) in Central America and provided a range map and photograph. 

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