Incilius gemmifer (Taylor, 1940)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius gemmifer

Bufo gemmifer Taylor, 1940 "1939", Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 26: 490. Holotype: EHT-HMS 18509, by original designation; now FMNH 100026 according to Marx, 1976, Fieldiana, Zool., 69: 44. Type locality: "El Limoncito, near La Venta, Guerrero", Mexico.

Cranopsis gemmiferFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Ollotis gemmiferFrost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Incilius gemmiferFrost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418–419, by implication.

English Names

Jeweled Toad (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 17; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 18).


Coastal region from near Acapulco, Guerrero, to Jamiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico (see comment).

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Mexico

Endemic: Mexico


In the former Bufo valliceps group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 49. See account by Porter, 1964 "1963", Herpetologica, 19: 229–247, who noted the close, possibly conspecific, relationship with Incilius mazatlanensis. See map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo gemmifer) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 184. Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1–34, suggested that this species is a member of a monophyletic Incilius valliceps group and in a subgroup they referred to as the Lowland group (the name Incilius valliceps subgroup is available—DRF) that includes Incilius gemmifer, Incilius luetkeni, Incilius mazatlanensis, Incilius nebulifer, and Incilius vallicepsOliver-López, Woolrich-Piña, and Lemos-Espinal, 2009, Fam. Bufonidae Mex.: 74–76, provided an account for Mexico (as Ollotis gemmifer) that reports on the confusing status of reports from Oaxaca, Mexico. Reyes-Velasco, Grünwald, Jones, and Ahumada-Carrillo, 2020, Rev. Latinoam. Herpetol., 3: 61–82, noted that records from Colima, Mexico, are based on misidentified Incilius mazatlanensis.  

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