Incilius luetkenii (Boulenger, 1891)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius luetkenii

Bufo luetkenii Boulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 8: 455. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.21.67 (formerly 1891.6.17.2) + 2 ZMUC, according to Hoogmoed, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 52. Type locality: "Cartago, Costa Rica"; type locality considered erroneous by Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 84, and Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 209.

Cranopsis luetkeniiFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Ollotis luetkeniFrost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Ollotis leutkeniLiner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 18. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Incilius luetkeniFrost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418–419, by implication.

English Names

Yellow Toad (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 17; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 18).


Low elevations along the Pacific versant from central Costa Rica to extreme southern Chiapas, Mexico, in the vicinity of Tapachula; dry interior valleys of Guatemala and Honduras and Río San Juan drainage in Costa Rica, sea level to 1300 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua


In the former Bufo valliceps group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 49. Erroneously included within Incilius valliceps (as Bufo valliceps) by Porter, 1970, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 94: 1. All of Porter's records for southeastern Guatemala, El Salvador, western Nicaragua, and northwestern Costa Rica are based on this species (J.M. Savage In Hoogmoed, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 52). See Taylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 615–616, for account. See accounts by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 208–209 (who included Mexico in the range and noted confusion with Incilius valliceps in the literature), and McCranie and Wilson, 2002, Amph. Honduras: 184–187. Köhler, Veselý, and Greenbaum, 2005 "2006", Amph. Rept. El Salvador: 29–31, provided an account (as Bufo luetkeni, and for El Salvador) and a color photograph. McCranie, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 38, summarized the departmental distribution in Honduras. Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1–34, suggested that this species is a member of a monophyletic Incilius valliceps group and in a subgroup they referred to as the Lowland group (the name Incilius valliceps subgroup is available—DRF) that includes Incilius gemmifer, Incilius luetkeni, Incilius mazatlanensis, Incilius nebulifer, and Incilius valliceps. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 104–115, compared this species to others in Central America and provided a range map and photograph. Rehberg-Besler, Doucet, and Mennill, 2016, J. Herpetol., 50: 502–508, reported on vocalization. Martínez-Fonseca, Holmes, Sunyer, Westeen, Grundler, Cerda, Fernández-Mena, Loza-Molina, Monagan, Nondorf, Pandelis, and Rabosky, 2024, Check List, 20: 62, provided records fromLas Brisas del Mogotón, Departamento Nueva Segovia, and Asososca Lake-Momotombo, Departmento León, western Nicaragua. 

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