Incilius melanochlorus (Cope, 1877)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius melanochlorus

Bufo melanochlorus Cope, 1877, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 17: 85. Holotype: Depostion not stated; USNM 30592 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 35. Type locality: "East Costa Rica"; corrected to "Costa Rica, east or eastern, Cantón de Limón, Provincia de Limón", by Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 89..

Bufo melanochlorisTaylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 616. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Cranopsis melanochloraFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Ollotis melanochloraFrost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Incilius melanochlorusFrost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418-419, by implication.

English Names

Dark Green Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

West Forest Toad (Jaramillo and Ibáñez D., 2009, Herpetol. Rev., 40: 108).


Lowlands and premontane slopes on the Atlantic versant southeastern Nicaragua, Costa Rica and adjacent Panama, 2–1080 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama


See Taylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 616, for synonymy. Records from Nicaragua are based on misidentified specimens of Incilius luetkenii or Incilius valliceps according to Villa, 1972, Anf. Nicaragua: 102. See Taylor, 1952, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 35: 616–618, for account. See account by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 209–210. O'Neill and Mendelson, 2004, J. Herpetol., 38:487–494, provided an updated account, taking into account the recognition of Incilius aucoinae. Jaramillo and Ibáñez D., 2009, Herpetol. Rev., 40: 108, provided the first record for Panama. See comments by Sunyer, Páiz, Dehling, and Köhler, 2009, Herpetol. Notes, 2: 189-202, regarding Nicaraguan populations.Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1–34, suggested that this species is a member of a monophyletic Incilius valliceps group and in a subgroup they referred to as the Forest Group (the name Incilius cristatus subgroup is available—DRF) that includes Incilius aucoinae, Incilius cavifrons, Incilius campbelli, Incilius cristatus, Incilius leucomoyos, Incilius macrocristatus, Incilius melanochlorus, Incilius spiculatus, and Incilius tutelariusKöhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 104–115, compared this species to others in Central America and provided a range map and photograph. Sunyer, Martínez-Fonseca, Salazar-Saavedra, Galindo-Uribe, and Obando, 2014, Mesoam. Herpetol., 1: 165, provided a record for the department of Rivas, Nicaragua.

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.