Incilius periglenes (Savage, 1967)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius periglenes

Bufo periglenes Savage, 1967 "1966", Rev. Biol. Tropical, 14: 153. Holotype: LACM 1893, by original designation. Type locality: "Costa Rica: Provincia de Alajuela: Cantón de San Carlos: Cordillera de Tilarán, 2 miles ENE of Monteverde, Provincia de Puntarenas; 1590 meters". Savage, 1974, Rev. Biol. Tropical, 22: 98, commented on the type locality.

Cranopsis periglenesFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Ollotis periglenesFrost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Incilius periglenesFrost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418-419, by implication.

English Names

Golden Toad (CITES).

Orange Toad (CITES).

Monte Verde Toad (CITES).

Alajuela Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43; CITES).

Monte Verde Golden Toad (USFWS, CITES).


Restricted (formerly; see comment) to the lower montane zone on both slopes along the continental divide between Puntarenas and Alajuela Provinces, Costa Rica, generally north and east of Monteverde, 1500–1620 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Costa Rica

Endemic: Costa Rica


In the former Bufo periglenes group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 53. Lips and Savage, 1996, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 109: 17–26, included this species (as Bufo periglenes) in a key to the tadpoles found in Costa Rica. See account by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 202–203. Extinct according to Pounds, Fogden, Savage, and Gorman, 1997, Conserv. Biol., 11: 1307–1322. See map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo periglenes) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 137. Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1–34, suggested that this species is a member of a monophyletic Incilius coniferus group that includes Incilius coniferus, Incilius chompipe, Incilius epioticus, Incilius fastidiosus, Incilius guanacastes, Incilius holdridgei, Incilius karenlipsae, Incilius periglenes, and Incilius peripatetesKöhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 104–115, compared this species to others in Central America and provided a range map and photograph.

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