Incilius perplexus (Taylor, 1943)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Incilius > Species: Incilius perplexus

Bufo perplexus Taylor, 1943, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 29: 347. Holotype: EHT-HMS 707, by original designation; now FMNH 100053, according to Marx, 1976, Fieldiana, Zool., 69: 45. Type locality: "near the edge of the Balsas River, near the town of Mexcala, Guerrero, México".

Cranopsis perplexaFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

Ollotis perplexaFrost, Grant, and Mendelson, 2006, Copeia, 2006: 558, by implication.

Incilius perplexusFrost, Mendelson, and Pramuk, 2009, Copeia, 2009: 418-419, by implication.

English Names

Confusing Toad (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 17; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 18).


Tepalcatepec Basin of Michoacán, extending into the western part of the Balsas Basin of Guerrero, southern Mexico.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Mexico

Endemic: Mexico


In the former Bufo marmoreus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 50. See map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo perplexus) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 190. Mendelson, Mulcahy, Williams, and Sites, 2011, Zootaxa, 3138: 1-34, suggested that Incilius canaliferus is a members in an a monophyletic group referred to as the Pacific Versant group (the name Incilius marmoreus group is available—DRF) that includes Incilius canaliferus, Incilius marmoreus, and Incilius perplexusOliver-López, Woolrich-Piña, and Lemos-Espinal, 2009, Fam. Bufonidae Mex.: 88–89, provided an account for Mexico (as Ollotis perplexa) although the range map is substantially out of date. 

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