Ingerophrynus galeatus (Günther, 1864)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Ingerophrynus > Species: Ingerophrynus galeatus

English Names

Gamboja Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Cambodia Toad (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2009, Herpetofauna Vietnam: 71).

Bony-headed Toad (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 130 [Hainan population now assigned to Ingerophrynus ledongensis).

Helmeted Toad (Hendrix, Böhme, and Ziegler, 2009, Herpetol. Notes, 2: 155).

Cambodian Toad (Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 20). 


Indochina (montane northern, central and southern Vietnam (Lao Cai, Thai Nguyen, Vinh Phuc, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam, Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Lam Dong, and Dong Nai provinces), montane Laos, northeastern Cambodia), 400 to 1060 m elevation; presumably to be found in adjacent Yunnan and/or Guangxi, China. See comment. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam

Likely/Controversially Present: China, People's Republic of


See brief account by Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 179–180. Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 130–131, provided a brief account, figure, and map. In the Bufo galeatus group according to Hu, Jiang, and Tian, 1984, Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, N.S.,, 3 (1): 77–85. Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 169, suggested provisional allocation to the Bufo asper group. Liu, Lathrop, Fu, Yang, and Murphy, 2000, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 14: 433, suggested that Ingerophrynus galeatus is the sister taxon of the Duttaphrynus melanostictusDuttaphrynus himalayanus clade, but Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297, on the basis of more data placed it within Ingerophrynus. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 17, provided specific localities for Vietnam. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 148, provided a photograph. Stuart, Sok, and Neang, 2006, Raffles Bull. Zool., 54: 136–137, provided an account and record for eastern Cambodia. Stuart, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 475, provided records for Laos. Population on Hainan Island has now been named as Ingerophrynus ledongensisNeang and Holden, 2008, Field Guide Amph. Cambodia: 51, provided a photograph, brief account of identification, ecology, and range in Cambodia. Hendrix, Böhme, and Ziegler, 2009, Herpetol. Notes, 2: 155–160, reported on tadpole morphology from a locality in the central highlands of Vietnam. Tran, Le, Le, Vu, Nguyen, Böhme, and Ziegler, 2010, Herpetol. Notes, 3: 111–119, provided a record from Quang Ngai Province, central Vietnam, and provided a brief morphological diagnosis. Hecht, Pham, Nguyen, Nguyen, Bonkowski, and Ziegler, 2013, Biodiversity J., 4: 507–552, reported a record from Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve, Bac Giang Province, northeastern Vietnam and discussed the range. Manthey and Manthey, 2017, Sauria, Berlin, 39: 5, provided a photographs of an adult (as Ingerophrynus cf. galeatus) from Phou Asa, Xe Pian National Protect Area, Thailand. See account, photograph, and map in Vassilieva, Galoyan, Poyarkov, and Geissler, 2016, Photograph. Field Guide Amph. Rept. Lowland S. Vietnam: 59–60. Pham, Do, Ngo, Tran, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2020, Check List, 16: 1025–1041, provided a record from Hai Ha District, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam, near the Guangxi, China, border. Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 20, suggested that specimens had been reported from China, but did not provide a specific locality. Duong and Ngo, 2022, Herpetol. Notes, 15: 751–762, discussed range in Vietnam in provided records for Dinh Binh Province. 

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