Leptophryne borbonica (Tschudi, 1838)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Leptophryne > Species: Leptophryne borbonica

Hysaplesia borbonica Boie In Schlegel, 1826, Bull. Sci. Nat. Geol., Paris, Ser. 2, 9: 239. Nomen nudum.

Hylaplesia borbonica Boie In Schlegel, 1826, Isis von Oken, 20: 294. Nomen nudum.

Hylaplesia borbonica Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 70. Syntypes: including RMNH 1739 (2 specimens), according to M.S. Hoogmoed in Inger, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 67, and ZMB 4487, accoring to Bauer, 2016, in Das and Tuen (eds.), Nat. Explor. Field Sci. SE Asia Australasia: 93. Type locality: "India orientalis" (= East Indies); restricted to "Java", Indonesia, by Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 75.

Bufo borbonicusCope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 193; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 286.

Bufo jerboa Boulenger, 1890, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1890: 328. Holotype: BMNH 1889.12.16.185 (reregistered 1947.2.20.54), by museum records. Type locality: "S.E. Borneo". Synonymy by Smith, 1930, Bull. Raffles Mus., 3: 129, and Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 75.

Nectophryne sumatrana Van Kampen, 1910, Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Nederl. Indie, 69: 19. Syntypes: ZMA (3 specimens), lost with the exception of ZMA 5177 according to Van Tuijl, 1995, Bull. Zool. Mus. Univ. Amsterdam, 14: 128; ZMA 5177 designated lectotype by Daan and Hillenius, 1966, Beaufortia, 13: 122. Type locality: "Bandar Baru liegt im Battak-Gebirge, "Bander Baru liegt im Battak Gebirge, etwa 1000 M. hoch" (= Bander Baru in the Battak Mountains, 1000 m elevation), Deli, Sumatra, Indonesia. Sumatra, Indonesia. Synonymy by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 159.

Nectophryne borbonicaVan Kampen, 1912, Notes Leyden Mus., 34: 76.

Bufo borbonicaSmith, 1925, Sarawak Mus. J., 3: 30.

Cacophryne borbonicaDavis, 1935, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., 20: 88.

Leptophryne borbonicaDubois, 1982, J. Herpetol., 16: 173–174; Inger and Stuebing, 1992, Malayan Nat. J., 46: 41-51.

English Names

Java Tree Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).

Hour-glass Toad (Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 42; Haas, Das, Hertwig, Bublies, and Schulz-Schaeffer, 2022, Guide to the Tadpoles of Borneo: 121).

Bourbon Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 42).

Slender-legged Toad (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 92).

Long-legged Slender Toad (Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 188).

Sumatran Slender-legged Toad (Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 16).


Rainforest of Peninsular Thailand (Trang, Patthalung, Songkhla, and Narathiwat provinces) through Malaya to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo; possibly into Tanintharyi, peninsular Myanmar.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Indonesia, Malaysia, Malaysia, East (Sarawak and/or Sabah), Malaysia, West (Peninsular), Thailand


See Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 342–344, and Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 75–78, for discussion and synonymy of this species (as Cacophryne borbonica); see also Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 52–54, and Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 167–169. See Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 130, for discussion of authorship. Horst, 1883, Notes Leyden Mus., 5: 235, describes the types and compares them with those of Leptophryne cruentata. See account by Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 42–43. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 37–38. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 80–81, provided an account. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 92–93, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Grismer, Chan, Grismer, Wood, and Ahmad, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 147–160, reported localities from the Banjaran Bintang Mountains, northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Thong-aree, Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Thailand Nat. Hist. Mus. J., 5: 99–106, reported the species from Bala Forest, Narathiwat, extreme southern Thailand. Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 128, detailed the range in Thailand. Haas, Kueh, Joseph, bin Asri, Das, Hagmann, Schwander, and Hertwig, 2018, Evol. Syst., 2: 89–114, provided a brief account of morphology for the Sabah population. Chan and Grismer, 2019, BMC Evol. Biol., 19(95): 3, suggested on the basis of sequence divergence between Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, and Sumatra, that this binominal is a species complex. Erfanda, Septiadi, Devi, and Hanifa, 2019, J. Trop. Biodiversity Biotechnol., 4: 82–89, reported on morphology and habitat in East Java, Indonesia. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 188–189, provided a brief account (photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). See comments on morphology in West Malaysia by Chan, Muin, Anuar, Andam, Razak, and Aziz, 2019, Check List, 15: 1055–1069. See brief account for East Java by Amin, 2020, Frogs of East Java: 40–43. Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 20, suggested that the Thai records require identification confirmation presumably based on the earlier concerns by Chan and Grismer (2019) that the species' name covers a species complex. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 16, discussed identification, habitat, and range in Myanmar. Haas, Das, Hertwig, Bublies, and Schulz-Schaeffer, 2022, Guide to the Tadpoles of Borneo: 121–122, summarized the knowledge of habitat, reproduction, larval morphology and coloration. Indra, Roesma, and Tjong, 2021, J. Trop. Life Sci., 11: 383–387, found a genetic distance in cyt b of 26.1% between populations Padang Pangjang and Bengkulu, both in Sumatra, suggesting that they likely are of different species.   

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