Oreophrynella macconnelli Boulenger, 1900

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Oreophrynella > Species: Oreophrynella macconnelli

Oreophrynella macconnelli Boulenger, 1900, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Ser. 2, 8: 55. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.14.49 (formerly 1899.3.25.17), according to Hoogmoed, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 71. Type locality: "base of Mt. Roraima, 3500 feet [=1060 m]", Venezuela or Guyana. See comment. 

Oreophrynella quelchii macconnelliRivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 175.

Oreophrynella macconnelliMcDiarmid, 1971, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 12: 41.

Oreophrynella dendronastes Lathrop and MacCulloch, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 88. Holotype: ROM 39645, by original designation. Type locality: "northeast slope of Mount Ayanganna, District 7, Guyana, 1490 m (5°24.11′ N, 59° 57.41′ W)." Synonymy by Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 1. See comment. 

English Names

MacConnell's Bush Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 45).


Known only from (1) Mount Ayanganna, District 7, Guyana, (2) Maringma tepui, Guyana, and (3) Mount Roraima, Guyana and Venezuela, 700 to 1830 m elevation; presumably in adjacent Brazil.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Guyana, Venezuela


Barrio-Amorós, 1999 "1998", Acta Biol. Venezuelica, 18: 11, commented on ambiguities surrounding the type locality and that material reported since the types may not be referable to this species. Barrio-Amorós, 2004, Rev. Ecol. Lat. Am., 9: 4, reported on distribution and relevant literature. See map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 199. Kok, 2009, Zootaxa, 2071: 35-49, provided an updated account and the record from Maringma tepui. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 376–377, for brief accounts (as both Oreophrynella macconnelli and Oreophrynella dendronastes) and records for Guyana. Kok, MacCulloch, Means, Roelants, Van Bocxlaer, and Bossuyt, 2012, Curr. Biol., 22: R589-R590, provided evidence that Oreophrynella dendronastes is synonymous with Oreophrynella macconnelliSeñaris, Lampo, Rojas-Runjaic, and Barrio-Amorós, 2014, Guía Ilust. Anf. Parque Nac. Canaima: 54–55, provided a brief account for the Parque Nacional de Canaima and photograph. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 11–13, for remarks on taxonomy, distribution, and literature, as well as a discussion of the location of the type locality. Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status in the Venezuelan Guayana. 

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