Pedostibes tuberculosus Günther, 1876

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Pedostibes > Species: Pedostibes tuberculosus

Pedostibes tuberculosus Günther, 1876 "1875", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1875: 576. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.22.70–71 (formerly–1376), according to Inger, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 72. Type locality: "Malabar", South India. Biju, 2001, Occas. Publ. Indian Soc. Conserv. Biol., 1: 8, noted the imprecision of this type locality, which could be anywhere within the entire region of the Western Ghats.

Nectophryne tuberculosaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 280.

English Names

Malabar Tree Toad (Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 431; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 43; Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 64).

Warty Asian Tree Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 45).

Western Ghats Tree Toad (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 3).


Maharashtra to southern Kerala and adjacent southwestern Tamil Nadu in isolated montane rainforest localities in the Western Ghats, 300 to 1800 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: India

Endemic: India


See brief accounts by Daniel, 1963, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 60: 431–432 (as Nectophryne tuberculosa), and Inger, Shaffer, Koshy, and Bakde, 1984, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 81: 409. See Biju, 2001, Occas. Publ. Indian Soc. Conserv. Biol., 1: 9, for statement of range. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 54, and Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 32–33, provided brief accounts. Daniels, 2005, Amph. Peninsular India: 116–117, provided an account. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 202. See comments on life history and morphology by Dahanukar, Padhye, Salelkar, and Ghate, 2004, Sauria, Berlin, 26: 17–20, who suggested that this name covers more than one species. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted no larval descriptions in the literature.  Dinesh and Radhakrishnan, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4910–4912, provided a staged description of the larvae. Subramanian, Dinesh, and Radhakrishnan, 2013, Atlas of Endemic Amph. W. Ghats: 39, provided a very brief characterization, photograph, and dot map. Sivaprasad, 2013, Common Amph. Kerala: 36–37, provided a brief account, photograph, and dot map for Kerala. Sayyed and Nale, 2017, IRCF Rept. & Amph., 24: 193–196, provided a record from Maharashtra, India, and natural history notes. Dharwadkar, Bednarski, Inman, and Mallapur, 2019, Zoos' Print J., 34: 18–20, provided a dot map and added a new locality in Maharashtra, India. Sreekumar and Dinesh, 2020, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 120: 33–40, discussed the range in Maharashtra, India, in terms of agro-climatic zones. Sandeep, Joelin, Sanil, and Antony, 2020, IRCF Rept. & Amph., 26: 250–252, provided a record from Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India. 

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