Centrolenidae Taylor, 1951

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Centrolenidae
156 species

Centrolenidae Taylor, 1951, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 64: 36. Type genus: Centrolene Jiménez de la Espada, 1872.

CentroleninaeBarrio, 1968, Physis, Buenos Aires, 28: 165–169; Lutz, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 24: 276; Rueda-Almonacid, 1994, Trianea, 5: 134.

Cochranellini Guayasamin, Castroviejo-Fisher, Trueb, Ayarzagüena, Rada, and Vilà, 2009, Zootaxa, 2100: 29. Type genus: Cochranella Taylor, 1951. Explicit tribe. 

Hyalinobatrachinae Guayasamin, Castroviejo-Fisher, Trueb, Ayarzagüena, Rada, and Vilà, 2009, Zootaxa, 2100: 39. Type genus: Hyalinobatrachium Ruiz-Carranza and Lynch, 1991. Explicit subfamily. Incorrect original spelling to be maintained under the provisions of Art. 29.4 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999). 

English Names

Glass Frogs (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 45; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 46; Lee, 2000, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Maya World: 118).


Tropical Central America, tropical Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia, Cordillera de la Costa of Venezuela, Tobago, Guiana Shield, Amazon Basin, and Atlantic Forest of Brazil.


Rueda-Almonacid, 1994, Trianea, 5: 133–187, reported on the anatomy of Centrolene and suggested that the relationship of centrolenids was with hylines and on this basis considered the taxon a subfamily of Hylidae. Darst and Cannatella, 2004, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 31: 462–475, provided molecular evidence that centrolenids are phylogenetically distant from hylids. This was confimed by Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 126, who suggested on the basis of an analysis of DNA sequence data and morphology that Centrolenidae is the sister taxon of Leptodactylidae (in their sense), reported on systematic literature, included Allophrynidae (containing only Allophryne) as a subfamily with a coordinate Centroleninae (containing a paraphyletic "Centrolene", Hyalinobatrachium, and Cochranella), and noted difficulties in the current generic taxonomy. Roelants, Gower, Wilkinson, Loader, Biju, Guillaume, Moriau, and Bossuyt, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 887–892, on the basis of less inclusive sampling, a moderately different molecular dataset, and a different analytical method found Centrolenidae as the sister taxon of Leptodactylidae (in their sense).Guayasamin and Trueb, 2007, Zootaxa, 1447: 27–45, disputed the treatment of Allophryninae as a subfamily of Centrolenidae, although they recognized that it forms the sister taxon of Centroleninae, and continued the recognition of the monotypic family, Allophrynidae. Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid, 2007, Zootaxa, 1572: 1–82, provided a detailed discussion of the evidence/characters underyling the taxonomy of Centrolenidae and provided modifications to diagnoses and the general taxonomy suggested originally by Ruiz-Carranza and Lynch, 1991, Lozania, 57: 1–30, and subsequently elaborated and built upon by others. Guayasamin, Castroviejo-Fisher, Ayarzagüena, Trueb, and Vilà, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 574–595, discussed the phylogenetics of the group on the basis of 3 mt and 3 nuclear gene sequences. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, in their study of Genbank sequences, confirmed the earlier result. Vitt and Caldwell, 2009, Herpetology, 3rd Ed.: 453–454, provided a general taxonomic account and map as part of a much more general and extensive overview of amphibian biology. Kubicki, 2007, Glass Frogs Costa Rica: 1–299, provided a key and accounts for all species in Costa Rica. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297, reported on systematic literature, included Allophrynidae (containing only Allophryne) as a subfamily of a coordinate Centroleninae (Centrolenidae of this catalogue). Guayasamin and Trueb, 2007, Zootaxa, 1447: 27–45, also recognized that Allophryne is the sister taxon of the traditional Centrolenidae, but continued the recognition of the monotypic family, Allophrynidae, and arrangement followed here because most of those working on relationships within centrolenids prefer that arrangement. See comment under Centrolenidae. Señaris and Ayarzagüena, 2005, Rev. Taxonom. Fam. Centrolenidae de Venezuela: 1–377, reported on the species of Venezuela. Guayasamin, Castroviejo-Fisher, Trueb, Ayarzagüena, Rada, and Vilà, 2009, Zootaxa, 2100: 1–97, provided a general taxonomy of centrolenids, treating Allophryne as its sister-family, Allophrynidae. Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 317–578, provided identification keys and accounts for the species in Guyana. Vitt and Caldwell, 2014, Herpetology, 4th Ed., provided a summary of life history, diagnosis, and taxonomy. Castroviejo-Fisher, Guayasamin, Gonzalez-Voyer, and Vilà, 2014, J. Biogeograph., 41: 66–80, reported on the molecular phylogenetics and biogeography. Hutter, Guayasamin, and Wiens, 2013, Ecol. Lett., 16: 1135–1144, reported on glassfrog regional richness. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 117–127, compared the genera and species of Central America and provided a range maps and photographs. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 117–127, provided a brief summary of natural history, compared the genera and species of Central America and provided an identification key, maps, and photographs. Twomey, Delia, and Castroviejo-Fisher, 2014, Zootaxa, 3851: 1–87, reviewed the species of northern Peru. Schmid, Steinlein, Feichtinger, and Bogart, 2014, Cytogenet. Genome Res., 142: 268–285, reported on chromosome banding in Allophrynidae and Centrolenidae. Streicher, Miller, Guerrero, Correa-Quezada, Ortiz, Crawford, Pie, and Wiens, 2018, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 119: 128–143, reported on a molecular study of hyloid frogs, corroborating Allophrynidae to be the sister taxon of Centrolenidae, and part of a large monophyletic group composed of Brachycephaloidea, Allophrynidae, Centrolenidae, Dendrobatoideak Leptodactylidae, Odontophrynidae, and Bufonidae, which they termed Coummutabirana. Escalona Sulbarán, Simões, Gonzalez-Voyer, and Castroviejo-Fisher, 2019, Evol. Biol., 32: 163–176, discussed the evolution of advertisement call within the family. Guayasamin, Cisneros-Heredia, McDiarmid, Peña, and Hutter, 2020, Diversity, 12 (222): 1–185, reviewed the species of Ecuador. Dias, Anganoy-Criollo, Rada, and Grant, 2020, Zool. Anz., 289: 118–122, discussed possible larval synapomorphies for the family.      

Contained taxa (156 sp.):

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