Ceratophrys cornuta (Linnaeus, 1758)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Ceratophryidae > Genus: Ceratophrys > Species: Ceratophrys cornuta

Rana cornuta Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 212. Type(s): Including frog figured by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 72, figs. 1-2. (See Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1 for image of NHRM type.) Type locality: "Virginia"; in error.

Bufo cornutusLaurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 25.

Buffo cornutaLacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 367, 461; Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: table after page 618, and referencing account starting on page 603.

Pipa cornataOken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 211.

Rana megastoma Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 27. Syntypes: Not specifically designated, although including animal figured in pl. 4, fig. 1 of the original and at least 2 specimens originally in ZSM; the remaining syntype, ZSM 1056/0 designated lectotype by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 358. See comments by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 175. Type locality: "juxta flumen Solimoens"; corrected to "Castro de Avelães, the present Amatura, on the right margin of the Solimões at 03° 29′ S, 68° 06′ W", Brazil, by Vanzolini, 1981, in Adler (ed.), Herpetol. Brazil Spix and Wagler: xxvi. Synonymy with Ceratophrys daudini Cuvier by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 6: 440. Synonymy by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 82 (with Phrynoceros vaillanti); Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 204; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 224.

Ceratophrys Sebae Gray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 214. Substitute name for Rana cornuta Linnaeus, 1758. 

Stombus cornutusGravenhorst, 1825, Isis von Oken, 1825: 921; Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 436.

Stombus megastomusGravenhorst, 1825, Isis von Oken, 1825: 921.

Ceratophris spixii Cuvier, 1829, Regne Animal., Ed. 2, 2: 106. Substitute name for Rana megastoma Spix.

Ceratophris daudini Cuvier, 1829, Regne Animal., Ed. 2, 2: 106. Holotype: Not stated, based on "Daudin, xxxviii" (not Daudin, 1802—DRF); MNHNP 692, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 26. Type localities: Not stated; given as Surinam, Guiana, by Gorham, 1966, Das Tierreich, 85: 37. Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 224.

Ceratophrys megastomaWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 204; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 25.

Ceratophrys cornutaSchlegel, 1837, Abbild. Neuer Unvollst. Amph., 1: 29.

Phrynoceros vaillanti Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 44, 82. Types: Not designated, presumably MHNN. Type locality: "Surinam". Synonymy with Ceratophrys daudini by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 6: 440. Synonymy by Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 204; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 224.

Ceratophrys cornutaPeters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 204.

Ceratophrys (Stombus) cornutaLynch, 1982, Syst. Zool., 31: 166-179.

Stombus cornutus — Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 177. 

English Names

Horned Frog (Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 160).

Horned Toad (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 316).

Bell's Ceratophrys (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 77).

Amazonian Horned Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 78).

Surinam Horned Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 71).


Amazonian Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and the Guianas, including northeastern Venezuela (Delta Amacura and Bolívar states). 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela


See accounts by Rivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 86; and Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 366-368, Duellman, 1978, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 65: 85–86 (including a brief description of the tadpole), and Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 52–53, provided a brief account for the Iquitos region of northeastern Peru. Márquez, De la Riva, and Bosch, 1995, J. Zool., London, 237: 313–336, reported on vocalization in Bolivia. De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 39, provided the Bolivian citation. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 200-201, provided a photo and brief account for French Guiana. Duellman, 2005, Cusco Amazonico: 263–265, provided an account (adult and larval morphology, description of the call, life history). Bernarde, Machado, and Turci, 2011, Biota Neotrop., 11: 117–144, reported specimens from Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre, Brazil. See comment under Ceratophrys calcarata. See account for Suriname population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 84-87. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 385, for brief account and records for Guyana. Faivovich, Nicoli, Blotto, Pereyra, Baldo, Barrionuevo, Fabrezi, Wild, and Haddad, 2014, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 9: 207–227, suggested that this species is the sister taxon of Ceratophrys calcarata.  See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 28, for comments on range, taxonomy, and literature. For identification of larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil, see Hero, 1990, Amazoniana, 11: 201–262. See brief account for the Manu region, Peru, by Villacampa-Ortega, Serrano-Rojas, and Whitworth, 2017, Amph. Manu Learning Cent.: 52–53. Metcalf, Marsh, Torres Pacaya, Graham, and Gunnels, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 753–767, reported the species from the Santa Cruz Forest Reserve, Loreto, northeastern Peru. Rojas-Runjaic, Palomera García, and Blanco Márquez, 2021, Herpetol. Notes, 14: 461–464, provided records from northeastern Venezuela and discussed the range. Taucce, Costa-Campos, Carvalho, and Michalski, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 836: 96–130, reported on distribution, literature, and conservation status for Amapá, Brazil. Schiesari, Rossa-Feres, Menin, and Hödl, 2022, Zootaxa, 5223: 36–37, detailed larval morphology and natural history in central Amazonia, Brazil.  

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