Oophaga pumilio (Schmidt, 1857)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Dendrobatoidea > Family: Dendrobatidae > Subfamily: Dendrobatinae > Genus: Oophaga > Species: Oophaga pumilio

Dendrobates pumilio Schmidt, 1857, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 24: 12. Holotype: KM 1018/1346; lost according to Savage, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 762; Silverstone, 1975, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 21: 37. Type locality: "Neu-Granada"; restricted to "der Weg zwischen Bocca del toro und dem Vulcan Chiriqui [Panama]...zwischen 5000′ und 7000′ Höhe" [Polish feet, therefore = 1150-1160 m, according to Savage, 1970, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 38: 273-288] by Schmidt, 1858, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 14: 249.

Hylaplesia pumilioGünther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 126.

Dendrobates typographus Keferstein, 1867, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 18: 360. Holotype: ZFMK 28115 (by implication) according to Böhme and Bischoff, 1984, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 19: 179. Type locality: "Costarica". Synonymy by Dunn, 1941, Copeia, 1941: 88; Savage, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 761; Silverstone, 1975, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 21: 11.

Dendrobates ignitus Cope, 1874, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 26: 68. Syntypes: ANSP 2724-29, according to Dunn and Stuart, 1951, Copeia, 1951: 58, and Silverstone, 1975, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 21: 37. Only one specimen noted in description so the status of the "syntypes" is questionable. Type locality: "region of Nicaragua". Dunn and Stuart, 1951, Copeia, 1951: 58, noted that the data "Machuca", Nicaragua. Synonymy with Dendrobates typographus by Cope, 1875 "1876", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 8: 102; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 148; and Werner, 1901, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 51: 631. Synonymy by Savage, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 761; Silverstone, 1975, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 21: 11.

Hylaplesia typographaBrocchi, 1882, Miss. Scient. Mex. Amer. Centr., Rech. Zool., 3(2, livr. 2): 88. Günther, 1900, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Vol. 7, Part 153: 207.

Hylaplesia ignitaKnauer, 1878, Naturgesch. Lurche: 112.

Dendrobates typographicusOertter, 1951, Aquar. Terrar. Z., 4: 48-49. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Dendrobates galindoi Trapido, 1953, Fieldiana, Zool., 34: 182. Holotype: FMNH 71053, by original designation. Type locality: "altitude 20 feet . . . at the edge of the village of Bastimentos, island of Bastimento, Bocas del Toro Province, Republic of Panama". Synonymy by Savage, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 761; Silverstone, 1975, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 21: : 27.

Oophaga pumilioBauer, 1994, Ripa, Netherlands, Fall: 4. Grant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 299: 172.

English Names

Strawberry Poison Frog (Walls, 1994, Jewels of the Rainforest: 24; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 50).

Flaming Poison-arrow Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 49).

Strawberry Poison-dart Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 49).

Red-and-blue Poison Frog (CITES).

Flaming Poison Frog (CITES).


Lowland forests of the Caribbean drainage of Central America, from eastern Nicaragua to western Panama.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama


See accounts by Savage, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 761–762, and Silverstone, 1975, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 21: 37–39. Lips and Savage, 1996, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 109: 17–26, included this species (as Dendrobates pumilio) in a key to the tadpoles found in Costa Rica. See account by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 386–388. Hagemann and Pröhl, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 45: 740–747, noted that the mitochondrial tree of this species presented Oophaga pumilio as forming two groups, one of which is the sister taxon of Oophaga arborea and the other, which is paraphyletic with respect to Oophaga speciosa. These authors suggested that Oophaga pumilio (as Dendrobates pumilio) might represent three species for which the names Dendrobates typhographus Keferstein, 1867, and Dendrobates ignitus Cope, 1874, are available; Dendrobates pumilio Schmidt, 1857, is available for populations south of the northern populations, except for the Escudo de Veraguas population in Panama which does not have an available name. Lötters, Jungfer, Henkel, and Schmidt, 2007, Poison Frogs: 591–609, provided an account. Batista and Köhler, 2008, Salamandra, 44: 225–234, reported on variation in western Panama. See comments by Sunyer, Páiz, Dehling, and Köhler, 2009, Herpetol. Notes, 2: 189–202, regarding Nicaraguan populations. Wang and Summers, 2010, Mol. Ecol., 19: 447–458, reported on microsatellite data strongly correlated with dorsal coloration suggestive of species boundaries. Hauswaldt, Ludewig, Vences, and Pröhl, 2011, J. Biogeograph., 38: 711–726, reported on genetic variation that was consistent with cryptic species. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 131–136, provided a key to the species of AndinobatesDendrobates, and Oophaga (as Dendrobates) in Central America and provided a map and photograph of this species. Galindo-Uribe, Sunyer, Hauswaldt, Amézquita, Pröhl, and Vences, 2014, Salamandra, 50: 225–235, reported on color-pattern variation and phylogeography. Rodriguez, Börner, Pabijan, Gehara, Haddad, and Vences, 2015, Evol. Ecol., 29: 765–785 (and supplemental data), reported on phylogeographic diversity and its causes. Martínez-Fonseca, Holmes, Sunyer, Westeen, Grundler, Cerda, Fernández-Mena, Loza-Molina, Monagan, Nondorf, Pandelis, and Rabosky, 2024, Check List, 20: 67, provided and discussed a record from Refugio Bartola, Departamento Río San Juan, Nicaragua, 60 m elevation.  

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